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Corrosion Study and Intermetallics Formation in Gold and Copper Wire Bonding in Microelectronics Packaging
Institute of Technical Education, 2 Ang Mo Kio Drive, 567720, Singapore
Promat Consultants, 160 Lentor Loop, #08-05, Tower 6, 789094, Singapore
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2013; in revised form: 31 May 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Abstract: A comparison study on the reliability of gold (Au) and copper (Cu) wire bonding is conducted to determine their corrosion and oxidation behavior in different environmental conditions. The corrosion and oxidation behaviors of Au and Cu wire bonding are determined through soaking in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution and high temperature storage (HTS) at 175 °C, 200 °C and 225 °C. Galvanic corrosion is more intense in Cu wire bonding as compared to Au wire bonding in NaCl solution due to the minimal formation of intermetallics in the former. At all three HTS annealing temperatures, the rate of Cu-Al intermetallic formation is found to be three to five times slower than Au-Al intermetallics. The faster intermetallic growth rate and lower activation energy found in this work for both Au/Al and Cu/Al as compared to literature could be due to the thicker Al pad metallization which removed the rate-determining step in previous studies due to deficit in Al material.
Keywords: intermetallics; reliability; wire bonding; gold; copper
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Goh, C.S.; Chong, W.L.E.; Lee, T.K.; Breach, C. Corrosion Study and Intermetallics Formation in Gold and Copper Wire Bonding in Microelectronics Packaging. Crystals 2013, 3, 391-404.
Goh CS, Chong WLE, Lee TK, Breach C. Corrosion Study and Intermetallics Formation in Gold and Copper Wire Bonding in Microelectronics Packaging. Crystals. 2013; 3(3):391-404.
Goh, Chwee S.; Chong, Wee L.E.; Lee, Teck K.; Breach, Christopher. 2013. "Corrosion Study and Intermetallics Formation in Gold and Copper Wire Bonding in Microelectronics Packaging." Crystals 3, no. 3: 391-404.