Next Article in Journal
Processability and Optimization of Laser Parameters for Densification of Hypereutectic Al–Fe Binary Alloy Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
Next Article in Special Issue
Extraction–Pyrolytic Method for TiO2 Polymorphs Production
Previous Article in Journal
Microtubules as One-Dimensional Crystals: Is Crystal-Like Structure the Key to the Information Processing of Living Systems?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Simple and Acid-Free Hydrothermal Synthesis of Bioactive Glass 58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5 (wt%)
Erratum published on 21 May 2021, see Crystals 2021, 11(6), 573.
Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Potent and Safe Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Ag/TiO2/CS Nanohybrid against Mastitis Causing E. coli

1
Department of Biological Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
Department of Chemistry, Faisalabad Campus, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
4
Department of Microbiology, University of Haripur, Haripur 22620, Pakistan
5
Institute of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, Punjab University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
6
Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic and Applied Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
7
Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
8
Department of Nanomedicine and Advanced Technologies, California Innovations Corporation, San Diego, CA 92037, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaime Gómez Morales
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030319
Received: 22 February 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
To improve the efficacy of existing classes of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin), allow dose reduction, and minimize related toxicity, this study was executed because new target-oriented livestock antimicrobials are greatly needed to battle infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. The present study aims to green synthesize a biocompatible nanohybrid of ciprofloxacin (CIP)-Ag/TiO2/chitosan (CS). Silver and titanium nanoparticles were green synthesized using Moringa concanensis leaves extract. The incorporation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles onto the surface of titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) was done by the wet chemical impregnation method, while the encapsulation of chitosan (CS) around Ag/TiO2 conjugated with ciprofloxacin (CIP) was done by the ionic gelation method. The synthesized nanohybrid (CIP-Ag/TiO2/CS) was characterized using standard techniques. The antibacterial potential, killing kinetics, cytotoxicity, drug release profile, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical agglomerated nanoparticles (NPs) of Ag/TiO2 with particle sizes of 47–75 nm, and those of the CIP-Ag/TiO2/CS nanohybrid were in range of 20–80 nm. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) patterns of the hetero system transmitted diffraction peaks of anatase phase of TiO2 and centered cubic metallic Ag crystals. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the Ti-O-Ag linkage in the nanohybrid. The zeta potential of CIP-Ag/TiO2/CS nanohybrid was found (67.45 ± 1.8 mV), suggesting stable nanodispersion. The MIC of CIP-Ag/TiO2/CS was 0.0512 μg/mL, which is much lower than the reference value recorded by the global CLSI system (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute). The CIP-Ag/TiO2/CS nanohybrid was found to be effective against mastitis causing MDR E. coli; killing kinetics showed an excellent reduction of E. coli cells at 6 h of treatment. Flow cytometry further confirmed antibacterial potential by computing 67.87% late apoptosis feature at 6 h of treatment; antibiotic release kinetic revealed a sustained release of CIP. FESEM and TEM confirmed the structural damages in MDR E. coli (multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli). The CIP-Ag/TiO2/CS nanohybrid was found to be biocompatible, as more than 93.08% of bovine mammary gland epithelial cells remained viable. The results provide the biological backing for the development of nanohybrid antibiotics at a lower MIC value to treat infectious diseases of cattle and improve the efficacy of existing classes of antibiotics by conjugation with nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: ciprofloxacin; TiO2/Ag/CS nanohybrid; ionic gelation; mastitis; MDR E. coli ciprofloxacin; TiO2/Ag/CS nanohybrid; ionic gelation; mastitis; MDR E. coli
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zafar, N.; Uzair, B.; Niazi, M.B.K.; Samin, G.; Bano, A.; Jamil, N.; Waqar-Un-Nisa; Sajjad, S.; Menaa, F. Synthesis and Characterization of Potent and Safe Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Ag/TiO2/CS Nanohybrid against Mastitis Causing E. coli. Crystals 2021, 11, 319. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030319

AMA Style

Zafar N, Uzair B, Niazi MBK, Samin G, Bano A, Jamil N, Waqar-Un-Nisa, Sajjad S, Menaa F. Synthesis and Characterization of Potent and Safe Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Ag/TiO2/CS Nanohybrid against Mastitis Causing E. coli. Crystals. 2021; 11(3):319. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030319

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zafar, Naheed, Bushra Uzair, Muhammad Bilal Khan Niazi, Ghufrana Samin, Asma Bano, Nazia Jamil, Waqar-Un-Nisa, Shamaila Sajjad, and Farid Menaa. 2021. "Synthesis and Characterization of Potent and Safe Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Ag/TiO2/CS Nanohybrid against Mastitis Causing E. coli" Crystals 11, no. 3: 319. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030319

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop