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Ultrafast Laser-Induced Crystallization of Lead Germanate Glass
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Towards a Rationalization of Ultrafast Laser-Induced Crystallization in Lithium Niobium Borosilicate Glasses: The Key Role of the Scanning Speed

1
Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d’Orsay (ICMMO), Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, 91405 Orsay, France
2
Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT) and RU INSTM, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Chiasera
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030290
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Induced Crystallization)
Femtosecond (fs)-laser direct writing is a powerful technique to enable a large variety of integrated photonic functions in glass materials. One possible way to achieve functionalization is through highly localized and controlled crystallization inside the glass volume, for example by precipitating nanocrystals with second-order susceptibility (frequency converters, optical modulators), and/or with larger refractive indices with respect to their glass matrices (graded index or diffractive lenses, waveguides, gratings). In this paper, this is achieved through fs-laser-induced crystallization of LiNbO3 nonlinear crystals inside two different glass matrices: a silicate (mol%: 33Li2O-33Nb2O5-34SiO2, labeled as LNS) and a borosilicate (mol%: 33Li2O-33Nb2O5-13SiO2-21B2O3, labeled as LNSB). More specifically, we investigate the effect of laser scanning speed on the crystallization kinetics, as it is a valuable parameter for glass laser processing. The impact of scanning energy and speed on the fabrication of oriented nanocrystals and nanogratings during fs-laser irradiation is studied.Fs-laser direct writing of crystallized lines in both LNS and LNSB glass is investigated using both optical and electron microscopy techniques. Among the main findings to highlight, we observed the possibility to maintain crystallization during scanning at speeds ~5 times higher in LNSB relative to LNS (up to ~600 µm/s in our experimental conditions). We found a speed regime where lines exhibited a large polarization-controlled retardance response (up to 200 nm in LNSB), which is attributed to the texturation of the crystal/glass phase separation with a low scattering level. These characteristics are regarded as assets for future elaboration methods and designs of photonic devices involving crystallization. Finally, by using temperature and irradiation time variations along the main laser parameters (pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed), we propose an explanation on the origin of (1) crystallization limitation upon scanning speed, (2) laser track width variation with respect to scanning speed, and (3) narrowing of the nanogratings volume but not the heat-affected volume. View Full-Text
Keywords: femtosecond laser; crystallization; silicate glasses femtosecond laser; crystallization; silicate glasses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muzi, E.; Cavillon, M.; Lancry, M.; Brisset, F.; Que, R.; Pugliese, D.; Janner, D.; Poumellec, B. Towards a Rationalization of Ultrafast Laser-Induced Crystallization in Lithium Niobium Borosilicate Glasses: The Key Role of the Scanning Speed. Crystals 2021, 11, 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030290

AMA Style

Muzi E, Cavillon M, Lancry M, Brisset F, Que R, Pugliese D, Janner D, Poumellec B. Towards a Rationalization of Ultrafast Laser-Induced Crystallization in Lithium Niobium Borosilicate Glasses: The Key Role of the Scanning Speed. Crystals. 2021; 11(3):290. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030290

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muzi, Elisa; Cavillon, Maxime; Lancry, Matthieu; Brisset, François; Que, Ruyue; Pugliese, Diego; Janner, Davide; Poumellec, Bertrand. 2021. "Towards a Rationalization of Ultrafast Laser-Induced Crystallization in Lithium Niobium Borosilicate Glasses: The Key Role of the Scanning Speed" Crystals 11, no. 3: 290. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030290

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