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Open AccessArticle

Propagation of Crystal Defects during Directional Solidification of Silicon via Induction of Functional Defects

1
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2021, 11(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020090
Received: 15 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Crystallization)
The introduction of directional solidified cast mono silicon promised a combination of the cheaper production via a casting process with monocrystalline material quality, but has been struggling with high concentration of structural defects. The SMART approach uses functional defects to maintain the monocrystalline structure with low dislocation densities. In this work, the feasibility of the SMART approach is shown for larger ingots. A G2 sized crystal with SMART and cast mono silicon parts has been analyzed regarding the structural defects via optical analysis, crystal orientation, and etch pit measurements. Photoluminescence measurements on passivated and processed samples were used for characterization of the electrical material quality. The SMART approach has successfully resulted in a crystal with mono area share over 90% and a confinement of dislocation structures in the functional defect region over the whole ingot height compared to a mono area share of down to 50% and extending dislocation tangles in the standard cast mono Si. Cellular structures in photoluminescence measurements could be attributed to cellular dislocation patterns. The SMART Si material showed very high and most homogeneous lifetime values enabling solar cell efficiencies up to 23.3%. View Full-Text
Keywords: directional solidification; crystal structure; dislocations; grain boundaries; seeded growth; semiconducting silicon directional solidification; crystal structure; dislocations; grain boundaries; seeded growth; semiconducting silicon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krenckel, P.; Hayama, Y.; Schindler, F.; Trötschler, T.; Riepe, S.; Usami, N. Propagation of Crystal Defects during Directional Solidification of Silicon via Induction of Functional Defects. Crystals 2021, 11, 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020090

AMA Style

Krenckel P, Hayama Y, Schindler F, Trötschler T, Riepe S, Usami N. Propagation of Crystal Defects during Directional Solidification of Silicon via Induction of Functional Defects. Crystals. 2021; 11(2):90. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020090

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krenckel, Patricia; Hayama, Yusuke; Schindler, Florian; Trötschler, Theresa; Riepe, Stephan; Usami, Noritaka. 2021. "Propagation of Crystal Defects during Directional Solidification of Silicon via Induction of Functional Defects" Crystals 11, no. 2: 90. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11020090

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