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Catalysts 2019, 9(3), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9030286

Aqueous Dehydration, Hydrogenation, and Hydrodeoxygenation Reactions of Bio-Based Mucic Acid over Ni, NiMo, Pt, Rh, and Ru on Neutral or Acidic Catalyst Supports

Department of Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heterogeneous Catalysis for Valorization of Lignocellulosic Biomass)
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Abstract

Hydrotreatment of mucic acid (also known as galactaric acid, an glucaric acid enantiomer), one of the most promising bio-based platform chemicals, was systematically investigated in aqueous media over alumina, silica, or carbon-supported transition (nickel and nickel-molybdenum) or noble (platinum, ruthenium and rhodium) metals. Mucic acid was only converted into mucic-1,4-lactone under non-catalytic reaction conditions in N2 atmosphere, while the 5 MPa gaseous H2 addition triggers hydrogenation in the bulk phase, resulting in formation of galacturonic and galactonic acid. However, dehydroxylation, hydrogenation, decarbonylation, decarboxylation, and cyclization occurred during catalytic hydrotreatment, forming various partially and completely deoxygenated products with a chain length of 3–6 C atoms. Characterization results of tested catalysts were correlated with their activity and selectivity. Insufficient pore diameter of microporous supports completely hindered the mass transfer of reactants to the active sites, resulting in negligible conversion of mucic acid. A comprehensive reaction pathway network was proposed and several industrially interesting compounds were formed, including levulinic acid, furoic acid, and adipic acid. However, selectivity towards adipic acid, a bio-based nylon 6,6 precursor, was low (up to 5 mol%) in aqueous media and elevated temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: aldaric acid; biomass-derived chemicals; hydrodeoxygenation; heterogeneous catalysts; dicarboxylic acids; adipic acid aldaric acid; biomass-derived chemicals; hydrodeoxygenation; heterogeneous catalysts; dicarboxylic acids; adipic acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Hočevar, B.; Grilc, M.; Likozar, B. Aqueous Dehydration, Hydrogenation, and Hydrodeoxygenation Reactions of Bio-Based Mucic Acid over Ni, NiMo, Pt, Rh, and Ru on Neutral or Acidic Catalyst Supports. Catalysts 2019, 9, 286.

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