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Open AccessArticle

Synthesis of High Crystalline TiO2 Nanoparticles on a Polymer Membrane to Degrade Pollutants from Water

Leibniz Institute of Surface Engineering (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(9), 376;
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Membrane Reactors)
PDF [5204 KB, uploaded 5 September 2018]


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is described as an established material to remove pollutants from water. However, TiO2 is still not applied on a large scale due to issues concerning, for example, the form of use or low photocatalytic activity. We present an easily upscalable method to synthesize high active TiO2 nanoparticles on a polyethersulfone microfiltration membrane to remove pollutants in a continuous way. For this purpose, titanium(IV) isopropoxide was mixed with water and hydrochloric acid and treated up to 210 °C. After cooling, the membrane was simply dip-coated into the TiO2 nanoparticle dispersion. Standard characterization was undertaken (i.e., X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water permeance, contact angle). Degradation of carbamazepine and methylene blue was executed. By increasing synthesis temperature crystallinity and photocatalytic activity elevates. Both ultrasound modification of nanoparticles and membrane pre-modification with carboxyl groups led to fine distribution of nanoparticles. The ultrasound-treated nanoparticles gave the highest photocatalytic activity in degrading carbamazepine and showed no decrease in degradation after nine times of repetition. The TiO2 nanoparticles were strongly bound to the membrane. Photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles with high activity were synthesized. The innovative method enables a fast and easy nanoparticle production, which could enable the use in large-scale water cleaning. View Full-Text
Keywords: photocatalysis; membrane; TiO2 nanoparticles; carbamazepine; methylene blue photocatalysis; membrane; TiO2 nanoparticles; carbamazepine; methylene blue

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Fischer, K.; Schulz, P.; Atanasov, I.; Abdul Latif, A.; Thomas, I.; Kühnert, M.; Prager, A.; Griebel, J.; Schulze, A. Synthesis of High Crystalline TiO2 Nanoparticles on a Polymer Membrane to Degrade Pollutants from Water. Catalysts 2018, 8, 376.

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