Next Article in Journal
Physiochemical Characterization of α-Amylase as Crosslinked Enzyme Aggregates
Previous Article in Journal
Propylsulfonic Acid Functionalized SBA-15 Mesoporous Silica as Efficient Catalysts for the Acetalization of Glycerol
Open AccessArticle

Improvement of the Catalytic Efficiency of Butene Oligomerization Using Alkali Metal Hydroxide-Modified Hierarchical ZSM-5 Catalysts

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(8), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8080298
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
  |  
PDF [2397 KB, uploaded 25 July 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Oligomerization of light olefin is an effective method to produce plentiful liquid fuels. However, oligomerization processes using microporous zeolites have severe problems due to steric hindrance. In this paper, oligomerization of butene using a series of new types of hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts is studied. To obtain the modified HZSM-5 catalysts, HZSM-5 is treated with the same concentration of LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and CsOH aqueous solutions, respectively. It is demonstrated that the alkali treatment can effectively modify the acidity properties and hierarchical structure of the HZSM-5 catalyst, which is confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Nitrogen Adsorption-desorption Measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations (TEM), Ammonia Temperature-programmed Desorption Method (NH3-TPD), Pyridine FT-IR, and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The results show that hierarchical catalysts with interconnected open-mesopores, smaller crystal size, and suitable acidity can better prolong the catalyst lifetime during butene oligomerization. Particularly, the HZSM-5 catalysts treated with CsOH aqueous solution (ATHZ5-Cs) proved to be the most effective catalyst, resulting in approximately 99% conversion of butene and exhibiting C8+ selectivity of 85% within 12 h. Thus, an appropriate hierarchical catalyst can satisfy the oligomerization process and has the potential to be used as a substitute for the commercial ZSM-5 catalyst. View Full-Text
Keywords: hierarchical catalysts; alkali metal hydroxides; butene oligomerization; liquid fuel hierarchical catalysts; alkali metal hydroxides; butene oligomerization; liquid fuel
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Ke, M.; Song, Z.; Liu, Y.; Shan, W.; Wang, Q.; Xia, C.; Li, C.; He, C. Improvement of the Catalytic Efficiency of Butene Oligomerization Using Alkali Metal Hydroxide-Modified Hierarchical ZSM-5 Catalysts. Catalysts 2018, 8, 298.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Catalysts EISSN 2073-4344 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top