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Article

Alkali-Free Zn–Al Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts for Triglyceride Transesterification

1
European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
2
Department of Chemistry, Perak Campus, University of Technology MARA, Tapah Road, Tapah Branch 35400, Perak, Malaysia
3
Department of Chemistry, University College London, London WC1H 0AJ, UK
4
School of Chemical Engineering & Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, The Mill, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
5
Applied Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, School of Science, RMIT University, 124 La Trobe Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(12), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120667
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
Zn–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of general formula [Zn2+(1−x)Al3+x(OH)2]x+(CO32)x/2·yH2O are promising solid base catalysts for the transesterification of lipids to biofuels. However, conventional synthetic routes employ alkali hydroxide/carbonate precipitants which may contaminate the final LDH catalyst and biofuel. The use of (NH3)2CO3 and NH3OH as precipitants affords alkali-free Zn–Al-LDHs spanning a wide composition range. The hydrothermal reconstruction of calcined Zn–Al-LDHs offers superior solid basicity and catalytic activity for the transesterification of C4–C18 triglycerides with methanol, compared with cold liquid phase or vapour phase reconstruction. Hydrothermally activated Zn3.3–Al-LDH was stable towards leaching during transesterification. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; layered double hydroxides; transesterification; solid base; triglycerides biodiesel; layered double hydroxides; transesterification; solid base; triglycerides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tajuddin, N.A.; Manayil, J.C.; Isaacs, M.A.; Parlett, C.M.A.; Lee, A.F.; Wilson, K. Alkali-Free Zn–Al Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts for Triglyceride Transesterification. Catalysts 2018, 8, 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120667

AMA Style

Tajuddin NA, Manayil JC, Isaacs MA, Parlett CMA, Lee AF, Wilson K. Alkali-Free Zn–Al Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts for Triglyceride Transesterification. Catalysts. 2018; 8(12):667. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120667

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tajuddin, Nazrizawati A., Jinesh C. Manayil, Mark A. Isaacs, Christopher M.A. Parlett, Adam F. Lee, and Karen Wilson. 2018. "Alkali-Free Zn–Al Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts for Triglyceride Transesterification" Catalysts 8, no. 12: 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120667

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