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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Alkali-Free Zn–Al Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts for Triglyceride Transesterification

European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Department of Chemistry, Perak Campus, University of Technology MARA, Tapah Road, Tapah Branch 35400, Perak, Malaysia
Department of Chemistry, University College London, London WC1H 0AJ, UK
School of Chemical Engineering & Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, The Mill, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Applied Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, School of Science, RMIT University, 124 La Trobe Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(12), 667;
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
Zn–Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) of general formula [Zn2+(1−x)Al3+x(OH)2]x+(CO32)x/2·yH2O are promising solid base catalysts for the transesterification of lipids to biofuels. However, conventional synthetic routes employ alkali hydroxide/carbonate precipitants which may contaminate the final LDH catalyst and biofuel. The use of (NH3)2CO3 and NH3OH as precipitants affords alkali-free Zn–Al-LDHs spanning a wide composition range. The hydrothermal reconstruction of calcined Zn–Al-LDHs offers superior solid basicity and catalytic activity for the transesterification of C4–C18 triglycerides with methanol, compared with cold liquid phase or vapour phase reconstruction. Hydrothermally activated Zn3.3–Al-LDH was stable towards leaching during transesterification. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; layered double hydroxides; transesterification; solid base; triglycerides biodiesel; layered double hydroxides; transesterification; solid base; triglycerides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tajuddin, N.A.; Manayil, J.C.; Isaacs, M.A.; Parlett, C.M.; Lee, A.F.; Wilson, K. Alkali-Free Zn–Al Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts for Triglyceride Transesterification. Catalysts 2018, 8, 667.

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