Efficient Catalytic Upgrading of Levulinic Acid into Alkyl Levulinates by Resin-Supported Acids and Flow Reactors
AbstractBiomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) is an excellent substrate to obtain high-value esters that can be used as second-generation biofuels and biofuel additives. The present study focuses on the identification and definition of the key parameters crucial for the development of chemically and environmentally efficient protocols operating in continuous-flow for the preparation of structurally diverse alkyl levulinates via the esterification of LA. We have focused on the use of solid acid catalysts consisting of sulfonated cation exchange resins and considered different aliphatic alcohols to prepare levulinates 3 and 11–17 regioselectively, and in good to high yields (50–92%). Direct correlations between several reaction parameters and catalyst activity have been investigated and discussed to set proper flow reactors that allow minimal waste production during the workup procedure, enabling Environmental factor (E-factor) values as low as ca. 0.3, full recoverability and reusability of the catalysts, and the production of levulinates up to ca. 5 gxh−1 scale. View Full-Text
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Trombettoni, V.; Bianchi, L.; Zupanic, A.; Porciello, A.; Cuomo, M.; Piermatti, O.; Marrocchi, A.; Vaccaro, L. Efficient Catalytic Upgrading of Levulinic Acid into Alkyl Levulinates by Resin-Supported Acids and Flow Reactors. Catalysts 2017, 7, 235.
Trombettoni V, Bianchi L, Zupanic A, Porciello A, Cuomo M, Piermatti O, Marrocchi A, Vaccaro L. Efficient Catalytic Upgrading of Levulinic Acid into Alkyl Levulinates by Resin-Supported Acids and Flow Reactors. Catalysts. 2017; 7(8):235.Chicago/Turabian Style
Trombettoni, Valeria; Bianchi, Luca; Zupanic, Ana; Porciello, Alessandro; Cuomo, Maurizio; Piermatti, Oriana; Marrocchi, Assunta; Vaccaro, Luigi. 2017. "Efficient Catalytic Upgrading of Levulinic Acid into Alkyl Levulinates by Resin-Supported Acids and Flow Reactors." Catalysts 7, no. 8: 235.
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