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Article

Support Screening Studies on the Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone in Water Using Ru Catalysts

Chemical Engineering Department, Engineering and Technology Institute Groningen (ENTEG), University of Groningen, Nijenborg 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
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Academic Editors: Albert Demonceau, Ileana Dragutan and Valerian Dragutan
Catalysts 2016, 6(9), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal6090131
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 August 2016 / Published: 30 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ruthenium Catalysts)
γ-Valerolactone (GVL) has been identified as a sustainable platform chemical for the production of carbon-based chemicals. Here we report a screening study on the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to GVL in water using a wide range of ruthenium supported catalysts in a batch set-up (1 wt. % Ru, 90 °C, 45 bar of H2, 2 wt. % catalyst on LA). Eight monometallic catalysts were tested on carbon based(C, carbon nanotubes (CNT)) and inorganic supports (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Nb2O5 and Beta-12.5). The best result was found for Ru/Beta-12.5 with almost quantitative LA conversion (94%) and 66% of GVL yield after 2 h reaction. The remaining product was 4-hydroxypentanoic acid (4-HPA). Catalytic activity for a bimetallic RuPd/TiO2 catalyst was by far lower than for the monometallic Ru catalyst (9% conversion after 2 h). The effects of relevant catalyst properties (average Ru nanoparticle size, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, micropore area and total acidity) on catalyst activity were assessed. View Full-Text
Keywords: levulinic acid hydrogenation; γ-valerolactone; Ru-catalysts levulinic acid hydrogenation; γ-valerolactone; Ru-catalysts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piskun, A.; Winkelman, J.G.M.; Tang, Z.; Heeres, H.J. Support Screening Studies on the Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone in Water Using Ru Catalysts. Catalysts 2016, 6, 131. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal6090131

AMA Style

Piskun A, Winkelman JGM, Tang Z, Heeres HJ. Support Screening Studies on the Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone in Water Using Ru Catalysts. Catalysts. 2016; 6(9):131. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal6090131

Chicago/Turabian Style

Piskun, Anna, Jozef G.M. Winkelman, Zhenchen Tang, and Hero J. Heeres. 2016. "Support Screening Studies on the Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone in Water Using Ru Catalysts" Catalysts 6, no. 9: 131. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal6090131

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