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Open AccessArticle

Isotopic Labeling Study of the Formation of Calix[5]pyrroles Catalyzed by Bi(NO3)3

Molecular Design Laboratory, Biological Chemistry Research Institute, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio B-1, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacán CP 58033, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2013, 3(3), 588-598;
Received: 21 April 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
PDF [1250 KB, uploaded 8 July 2013]


One of the more elusive classes of macrocycles includes the calix[5]pyrroles, which can be obtained from pyrrole and acetone in the presence of low concentrations of Bi(NO3)3-5H2O. An isotopic labeling experiment aided the proposal of a mechanism to explain the formation of calix[5]pyrrole at low acid concentrations and the exclusive formation of calix[4]pyrrole at high acid concentrations. We assume that the mechanism involves HNO3, which is released from the Bi salt. View Full-Text
Keywords: calixpyrrole; calix[5]pyrrole; bismuth nitrate; anion-guest calixpyrrole; calix[5]pyrrole; bismuth nitrate; anion-guest

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Chacón-García, L.; Contreras-Celedón, C.A.; Tapia-Juárez, M. Isotopic Labeling Study of the Formation of Calix[5]pyrroles Catalyzed by Bi(NO3)3. Catalysts 2013, 3, 588-598.

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