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Review

Toward Scaling-Up Photocatalytic Process for Multiphase Environmental Applications

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic Montreal, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
2
Department of Public Works Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Milano, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernando J. Beltrán Novillo
Catalysts 2021, 11(5), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050562
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
Recently, we have witnessed a booming development of composites and multi-dopant metal oxides to be employed as novel photocatalysts. Yet the practical application of photocatalysis for environmental purposes is still elusive. Concerns about the unknown fate and toxicity of nanoparticles, unsatisfactory performance in real conditions, mass transfer limitations and durability issues have so far discouraged investments in full-scale applications of photocatalysis. Herein, we provide a critical overview of the main challenges that are limiting large-scale application of photocatalysis in air and water/wastewater purification. We then discuss the main approaches reported in the literature to tackle these shortcomings, such as the design of photocatalytic reactors that retain the photocatalyst, the study of degradation of micropollutants in different water matrices, and the development of gas-phase reactors with optimized contact time and irradiation. Furthermore, we provide a critical analysis of research–practice gaps such as treatment of real water and air samples, degradation of pollutants with actual environmental concentrations, photocatalyst deactivation, and cost and environmental life-cycle assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; photocatalysis; reactors; wastewater; water matrix; scaling up air pollution; photocatalysis; reactors; wastewater; water matrix; scaling up
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alalm, M.G.; Djellabi, R.; Meroni, D.; Pirola, C.; Bianchi, C.L.; Boffito, D.C. Toward Scaling-Up Photocatalytic Process for Multiphase Environmental Applications. Catalysts 2021, 11, 562. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050562

AMA Style

Alalm MG, Djellabi R, Meroni D, Pirola C, Bianchi CL, Boffito DC. Toward Scaling-Up Photocatalytic Process for Multiphase Environmental Applications. Catalysts. 2021; 11(5):562. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050562

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alalm, Mohamed Gar, Ridha Djellabi, Daniela Meroni, Carlo Pirola, Claudia Letizia Bianchi, and Daria Camilla Boffito. 2021. "Toward Scaling-Up Photocatalytic Process for Multiphase Environmental Applications" Catalysts 11, no. 5: 562. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050562

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