Next Article in Journal
Polar Head Modified Phospholipids by Phospholipase D-Catalyzed Transformations of Natural Phosphatidylcholine for Targeted Applications: An Overview
Previous Article in Journal
Effective Depolymerization of Sodium Lignosulfonate over SO42−/TiO2 Catalyst
Article

Catalyst Performance Studies on the Guerbet Reaction in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Mono- and Bi-Metallic Cu-Ni Porous Metal Oxides

1
Green Chemical Reaction Engineering, Engineering and Technology Institute Groningen, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Stratingh Institute for Chemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Advanced Production Engineering, Engineering and Technology Institute Groningen, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands
4
Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, the Netherlands
5
Department of Chemistry, Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, University of Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28/II, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(9), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10090996
Received: 2 August 2020 / Revised: 23 August 2020 / Accepted: 27 August 2020 / Published: 1 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biomass Catalysis)
Higher alcohols like 1-butanol are considered important biofuels with superior properties compared to the more readily available bio-ethanol. An attractive route to prepare 1-butanol from ethanol is the Guerbet reaction. We here report the use of hydrotalcite-derived mono- (Cu-PMO or Ni-PMO) and bi-metallic (CuNi-PMO) porous metal oxide catalysts for the Guerbet coupling of ethanol to 1-butanol in a continuous flow reactor (320 °C, 0.1 MPa, LHSV = 15 mL g−1 h−1) at extended times on stream (~160 h). Two distinct regimes with different product distributions were observed for the Cu-PMO and CuNi-PMO catalyst with time on stream. At the start of the run, the initial conversion of ethanol dropped from about 85% to less than 20% after 60 h and acetaldehyde was the main product (regime 1). At prolonged times on stream (60–160 h), fairly constant low conversions of ethanol (14%) were observed and 1-butanol was the main product (regime 2). Performance of the monometallic Cu-PMO catalyst in terms of 1-butanol yield and stability was lower compared to the bi-metallic CuNi-PMO. Detailed catalyst characterization studies (XRD, H2-TPR, sorption of acrylic acid, TGA, TEM, HAADF-STEM, and EDS mapping) on both fresh and spent CuNi-PMO taken at various times on stream was performed to determine the changes in catalyst morphology and composition during a run, and particularly to obtain information on changes in catalyst structure operating in regime 1 or 2. The change in chemoselectivity is in line with an increase in basicity of the catalyst at extended runtimes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol; 1-butanol; Guerbet reaction; porous metal oxides; catalyst deactivation ethanol; 1-butanol; Guerbet reaction; porous metal oxides; catalyst deactivation
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Xi, X.-Y.; Sun, Z.-H.; Cao, H.-T.; Pei, Y.-T.; ten Brink, G.H.; Deuss, P.J.; Barta, K.; Heeres, H.J. Catalyst Performance Studies on the Guerbet Reaction in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Mono- and Bi-Metallic Cu-Ni Porous Metal Oxides. Catalysts 2020, 10, 996. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10090996

AMA Style

Xi X-Y, Sun Z-H, Cao H-T, Pei Y-T, ten Brink GH, Deuss PJ, Barta K, Heeres HJ. Catalyst Performance Studies on the Guerbet Reaction in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Mono- and Bi-Metallic Cu-Ni Porous Metal Oxides. Catalysts. 2020; 10(9):996. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10090996

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xi, Xiao-Ying, Zhuo-Hua Sun, Hua-Tang Cao, Yu-Tao Pei, Gert H. ten Brink, Peter J. Deuss, Katalin Barta, and Hero J. Heeres 2020. "Catalyst Performance Studies on the Guerbet Reaction in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Mono- and Bi-Metallic Cu-Ni Porous Metal Oxides" Catalysts 10, no. 9: 996. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10090996

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop