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Open AccessArticle

Tuned Bis-Layered Supported Ionic Liquid Catalyst (SILCA) for Competitive Activity in the Heck Reaction of Iodobenzene and Butyl Acrylate

1
Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku/Åbo, Finland
2
Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 56199-11367, Iran
3
Technical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(9), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10090963
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 14 August 2020 / Accepted: 19 August 2020 / Published: 22 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Catalysis)
A thorough experimental optimization of supported ionic liquid catalyst (SILCA) was performed in order to obtain a stable and efficient catalyst for the Heck reaction. Out of fifteen proposed structures, propyl imidazolium bromide-tetramethylguanidinium pentanoate modified SiO2 loaded with PdCl2 appeared to be the most stable and to have a good activity in the reaction between butylacrylate and iodobezene, resulting in a complete conversion in 40 min at 100 °C, in four consecutive experiments. This study elucidated on the stability of the catalytic system with an ionic liquid layer during the catalyst synthesis but also under reaction conditions. In the bis-layered catalyst, the imidazolium moiety as a part of internal layer, brought rigidity to the structure, while in external layer pentanoic acid gave sufficiently acidic carboxylic group capable to coordinate 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and thus, allow good dispersion of Pd nanoparticles. The catalyst was characterized by means of XPS, FT-IR, TEM, ICP-OES, ζ-potential, EDX, TGA, and 13C NMR. The release and catch mechanism was observed, whereas Pd re-deposition can be hindered by catalyst poisoning and eventual loss of palladium. View Full-Text
Keywords: supported ionic liquid catalyst (SILCA); palladium; Heck reaction; catalyst screening; optimization supported ionic liquid catalyst (SILCA); palladium; Heck reaction; catalyst screening; optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vucetic, N.; Virtanen, P.; Nuri, A.; Shchukarev, A.; Mikkola, J.-P.; Salmi, T. Tuned Bis-Layered Supported Ionic Liquid Catalyst (SILCA) for Competitive Activity in the Heck Reaction of Iodobenzene and Butyl Acrylate. Catalysts 2020, 10, 963.

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