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Open AccessArticle

Composite Catalyst of Palm Mill Fly Ash-Supported Calcium Oxide Obtained from Eggshells for Transesterification of Off-Grade Palm Oil

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru 28293, Indonesia
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Kopelma Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
3
School of Chemical Engineering, University Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Penang, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(7), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10070724
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
This research was designed to synthesize a composite catalyst of palm oil fly ash-impregnated calcium oxide prepared from eggshell waste. Several preparation conditions, such as temperature and time applied to calcination and dehydration processes, were investigated. As a result, the optimum temperature and the length of time of calcination were 900 °C and 3 h, respectively. Meanwhile, the dehydration process was performed optimally at 600 °C for 3 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the obtained catalyst mostly contained calcium oxide compounds (CaO and Ca(OH)2) and minor impurities of silica oxides (SiO2 and Ca2SiO4), with a catalyst-specific surface area of 30.24 m2/g. Regarding its catalytic performance, the composite catalyst proved successful for prospective application the in transesterification of palm oil off-grade, resulting in methyl palmitate and methyl oleate, which are two biodiesel compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; calcium oxide; catalysts; fly ash; transesterification biodiesel; calcium oxide; catalysts; fly ash; transesterification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Helwani, Z.; Ramli, M.; Saputra, E.; Putra, Y.L.; Simbolon, D.F.; Othman, M.R.; Idroes, R. Composite Catalyst of Palm Mill Fly Ash-Supported Calcium Oxide Obtained from Eggshells for Transesterification of Off-Grade Palm Oil. Catalysts 2020, 10, 724.

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