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Open AccessArticle

Biolubricants from Rapeseed and Castor Oil Transesterification by Using Titanium Isopropoxide as a Catalyst: Production and Characterization

1
Department of Chemical Engineering and Physical-Chemistry, University of Extremadura, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
2
Department of Applied Physics, University of Extremadura, 06006 Badajoz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10040366
Received: 4 March 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 29 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Derived Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalysts)
The transesterification of rapeseed and castor oil methyl esters with different alcohols (2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 1-heptanol and 4-methyl-2-pentanol) and titanium isopropoxide as a catalyst, to produce biolubricants, was carried out. Parameters such as temperature, alcohol/methyl ester molar ratio, and catalyst concentration were studied to optimize the process. The reaction evolution was monitored with the decrease in FAME concentration by gas chromatography. In general, the reaction was almost complete in two hours, obtaining over 93% conversions. All the variables studied influenced on the reaction yields. Once the optimum conditions for the maximum conversion and minimum costs were selected, a characterization of the biolubricants obtained, along with the study of the influence of the kind of alcohol used, was carried out. The biolubricants had some properties that were better than mineral lubricants (flash points between 222 and 271 °C), needing the use of additives when they do not comply with the standards (low viscosity for rapeseed biolubricant, for instance). There was a clear influence of fatty acids of raw materials (oleic and ricinoleic acids as majority fatty acids in rapeseed and castor oil, respectively) and the structure of the alcohol used on the final features of the biolubricants. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acid methyl esters; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; 1-heptanol; 4-methyl-2-pentanol; viscosity; flash and combustion points; methyl oleate; methyl ricinoleate fatty acid methyl esters; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol; 1-heptanol; 4-methyl-2-pentanol; viscosity; flash and combustion points; methyl oleate; methyl ricinoleate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Encinar, J.M.; Nogales-Delgado, S.; Sánchez, N.; González, J.F. Biolubricants from Rapeseed and Castor Oil Transesterification by Using Titanium Isopropoxide as a Catalyst: Production and Characterization. Catalysts 2020, 10, 366.

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