Development and Evaluation of the Virtual Prototype of the First Saudi Arabian-Designed Car
“Virtual prototyping is a software-based engineering discipline that entails modelling a mechanical system, simulating and visualizing its 3D-motion behavior under real-world operating conditions, and refining/optimizing the design through iterative design studies prior to building the first physical prototype”.
2. Related Work
2.1. Virtual Prototyping for Visualization
- Attraction due to recognition of previously-used products
- Symbolic attraction (appeal to personal and social values of customers)
- Inherent attraction (intrinsic beauty of the product form)
2.2. Virtual Prototyping for Fits and Interference Check
2.3. Virtual Prototyping Assessment
3. Methodology for VP Development
3.1. Hardware Used
- A 3.1 m × 2.1 m power-wall to provide a platform for 3D projection,
- A Christie Mirage rear-projected high-resolution (S + 6 K) projector to produce an immersive three-dimensional (3D) environment,
- Active shutter glasses for stereoscopic viewing,
- A Dell Precision T5400 workstation with a 2.33-GHz Intel Xeon processor and a 1.5-GB Nvidia FX5800 graphics card, which runs the software and enables the interaction between human and machine,
- An inertial tracking system (i.e., Intersense™ IS900) that provides dynamic, real-time measurement of the position and the orientation of the user’s head and hands,
- An AMX controller to control the lights, display and sound system.
3.2. Software Used
- CATIA is used to construct the various components of the Gazal-1.
- PTC Division Mockup® is used to employ a number of aesthetic features and supplementary behavioral properties to the CAD models, so that the subsequent virtual environment is evenly matched with the real world.
- PTC Pro-engineer® is used as a link between the CATIA and PTC Division Mockup® software.
- Virtalis stereo-server is used to achieve interactive functionality, real-time visualization and integration of various VR devices.
3.3. Information Processing
3.4. Developmental Procedure
3.4.1. Development of CAD Models
3.4.2. CAD to VR Data Conversion
3.4.3. Modeling in Division Mockup
- Material file (*.bmf): stores the information regarding the material of the CAD model.
- Geometry file (*.bgf): stores the geometrical and shape information of the model.
- Texture file (*.vtx): stores the information if there is some texture applied to the model.
- Virtual data interchange file (*.vdi): contains parts hierarchies, interdependencies and properties.
3.4.4. Collision Detection
4. Developed Virtual Prototype
5. Evaluation of the Virtual Prototype of Gazal-1
5.1. Questionnaires Used
- Participants were asked to fill out a demographics questionnaire.
- A tour was made to show the participants the physical model of the Gazal-1 and the real model (as shown in Figure 18).
- Before the start of a session, participants completed a small training. The training’s purpose was to make the participants familiar with the working of the various devices of the Advanced Manufacturing Institute’s (AMI) semi-immersive VR lab.
- Then, participants were required to complete several operations and tasks on the 1:1 scale virtual prototype of Gazal-1, such as open the car door with the virtual hand, start the engine, open the window, analyze different exterior colors, change the seat leather, operate the car radio, open the hood and analyze the components closely, to name a few. Same tasks were later performed by the participants on the physical prototype and then on the real model.
- Once these tasks were completed, participants completed a modified presence questionnaire.
Descriptive Statistics of User’s Feedback Data
7. Conclusions and Future Work Directions
- The unification of VP and VR techniques has potential to provide advanced visualization and manipulation capabilities for product development by facilitating visual assessment and obtaining the customer’s perception on the target product;
- The development of a VP environment shows great promise in providing intuitive strategies for people engaged in the design and prototyping process;
- VP provides an integrated structure for bridging different phases of the product development process, such as design, reviewing and marketing;
- Semi-immersive VR environments are cost effective and provide a good sense of immersion; these systems can be easily implemented in small enterprises;
- With the help of the collision detection technique, various interferences and clashes can also be diagnosed efficiently.
- The results showed that the virtual prototype is representative of a real car. Therefore, one can judge various design and aesthetics features of the car quite effectively.
- The developed virtual environment gives enough immersiveness to the user that he/she can assume that the virtual world is close to the real one.
- The descriptive statistics suggest that the virtual prototype performs well for most of the aspects.
- On the basis of the results, it can be concluded that the VP possesses much potential, and it makes the product development process more efficient in terms of both cost and time.
Conflicts of Interest
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|S. No.||Purpose||Brief Description||References|
|1||Basic concepts and issues in VP||This group of literature deals with various issues related to VP; concepts are presented, as well as reviews about the technology.||[3,6,33,34,35,36,37]|
|2||VP for design review||It includes case studies developed for design review and simulation of a product or a component.||[1,29,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51]|
|3||VP for analysis||This group includes case studies developed for the analysis of a product or component (ergonomics or other analysis).||[52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60]|
|4||VP for automobile||It includes literature that deals with the VP of automobiles.||[8,61,62,63,64,65,66,67]|
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Abidi, M.H.; Al-Ahmari, A.M.; El-Tamimi, A.M.; Darwish, S.; Ahmad, A. Development and Evaluation of the Virtual Prototype of the First Saudi Arabian-Designed Car. Computers 2016, 5, 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5040026
Abidi MH, Al-Ahmari AM, El-Tamimi AM, Darwish S, Ahmad A. Development and Evaluation of the Virtual Prototype of the First Saudi Arabian-Designed Car. Computers. 2016; 5(4):26. https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5040026Chicago/Turabian Style
Abidi, Mustufa H., Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari, Abdulaziz M. El-Tamimi, Saied Darwish, and Ali Ahmad. 2016. "Development and Evaluation of the Virtual Prototype of the First Saudi Arabian-Designed Car" Computers 5, no. 4: 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/computers5040026