Next Article in Journal
Prediction of Metastasis and Recurrence in Colorectal Cancer Based on Gene Expression Analysis: Ready for the Clinic?
Next Article in Special Issue
Does Secondary Inflammatory Breast Cancer Represent Post-Surgical Metastatic Disease?
Previous Article in Journal
Microarray Analysis in a Cell Death Resistant Glioma Cell Line to Identify Signaling Pathways and Novel Genes Controlling Resistance and Malignancy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tumor Cell Seeding During Surgery—Possible Contribution to Metastasis Formations
Open AccessReview

Extracellular NM23 Signaling in Breast Cancer: Incommodus Verum

Department of Pharmacology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Mail Stop 573, 1664 N. Virginia Street, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2011, 3(3), 2844-2857;
Received: 30 March 2011 / Revised: 2 June 2011 / Accepted: 27 June 2011 / Published: 6 July 2011
The notion that breast cancers can survive in an individual patient in a dormant state only to grow as metastatic disease in the future, is in our view incontrovertibly established. Convincing too is the evidence that surgery to remove the primary tumor often terminates dormancy resulting in accelerated relapses. Accepting that many deaths due to breast cancer might be averted were we to understand the cellular mechanisms underlying escape from dormancy, we have examined the extracellular signals produced by breast cancers derived from women with metastatic breast disease. In this perspective, we explore the role of extracellular nucleotide signaling that we have proposed constitutes a pathological axis from the transformed tumor cell to the endothelium in the service of intravasation, dissemination, extravasation and angiogenesis. A role for the dinucleotide kinase NM23/NDPK (nucleoside diphosphate kinase) secreted by breast tumor cells in the generation of signals that stimulate vascular leakiness, anti-thrombosis, endothelial migration and growth, constitutes a mechanistic basis for escape from latency and offers putative therapeutic targets for breast cancer management not previously appreciated. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; dormancy; latency; NDPK; nucleotides; purinergic receptors; signaling; angiogenesis breast cancer; dormancy; latency; NDPK; nucleotides; purinergic receptors; signaling; angiogenesis
MDPI and ACS Style

Buxton, I.L.; Yokdang, N. Extracellular NM23 Signaling in Breast Cancer: Incommodus Verum. Cancers 2011, 3, 2844-2857.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop