Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Serosal Invasion and Criteria for the Classification of Pathological (p) T4 Staging in Colorectal Carcinoma: Confusions, Controversies and Criticisms
Next Article in Special Issue
Extra-Neural Metastases of Malignant Gliomas: Myth or Reality?
Previous Article in Journal
Membrane Drug Transporters and Chemoresistance in Human Pancreatic Carcinoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 126-163;

Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 23 December 2010 / Published: 30 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-Specific Metastasis Formation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1088 KB, uploaded 30 December 2010]   |  


Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; metastasis; organ-specific; metastatic dormancy; pre-malignant dissemination melanoma; metastasis; organ-specific; metastatic dormancy; pre-malignant dissemination

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Damsky, W.E., Jr.; Rosenbaum, L.E.; Bosenberg, M. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis. Cancers 2011, 3, 126-163.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top