Next Article in Journal
Glycosyltransferases in Cancer: Prognostic Biomarkers of Survival in Patient Cohorts and Impact on Malignancy in Experimental Models
Previous Article in Journal
Therapeutic Strategies Focused on Cancer-Associated Hypercoagulation for Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma
Article

The Performance of HE4 Alone and in Combination with CA125 for the Detection of Ovarian Cancer in an Enriched Primary Care Population

1
Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St Mary’s Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
2
The Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK
3
Centre for Primary Care and Health Service Research, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
4
Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
5
Institute of Health Research, College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK
6
Division of Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel Uwe Reimer
Cancers 2022, 14(9), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092124
Received: 17 March 2022 / Revised: 12 April 2022 / Accepted: 19 April 2022 / Published: 24 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Detection in Primary Care)
Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynaecological cancer in the UK. Survival is better when the disease is diagnosed early. However, identifying ovarian cancer is challenging because symptoms are non-specific. Simple, accurate tests are needed to help identify ovarian cancer in symptomatic women. HE4, a relatively new blood biomarker, has shown promise in the hospital setting. This study aimed to assess whether HE4 would improve ovarian cancer diagnosis in women with symptoms in primary care. We found combining HE4 levels with the currently used test (CA125) within an algorithm (Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm) improved the detection of ovarian cancer in primary care, particularly in women under 50 years of age, where diagnosis is more challenging. However, our results require validation in a larger sample. This study advances our knowledge of HE4 as an ovarian cancer biomarker in the primary care setting.
Human epididymis 4 (HE4) is a promising ovarian cancer biomarker, but it has not been evaluated in primary care. In this prospective observational study, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of HE4 alone and in combination with CA125 for the detection of ovarian cancer in symptomatic women attending primary care. General practitioner (GP)-requested CA125 samples were tested for HE4 at a large teaching hospital in Manchester, and cancer outcomes were tracked for 12 months. We found a low incidence of ovarian cancer in primary care; thus, the cohort was enriched with pre-surgical samples from 81 ovarian cancer patients. The Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) was calculated using age (</>51) as a surrogate for menopause. Conventional diagnostic accuracy metrics were determined. A total of 1229 patients were included; 82 had ovarian cancer. Overall, ROMA performed best (AUC-0.96 (95%CI: 0.94–0.98, p = <0.001)). In women under 50 years, the combination of CA125 and HE4 (either marker positive) was superior (sensitivity: 100% (95%CI: 81.5–100.0), specificity: 80.1% (95%CI 76.7–83.1)). In women over 50, ROMA performed best (sensitivity: 84.4% (95%CI: 73.1–92.2), specificity: 87.2% (95%CI 84.1–90)). HE4 and ROMA may improve ovarian cancer detection in primary care, particularly for women under 50 years, in whom diagnosis is challenging. Validation in a larger primary care cohort is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovarian cancer; early detection; primary care; biomarker; HE4; CA125; ROMA ovarian cancer; early detection; primary care; biomarker; HE4; CA125; ROMA
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Barr, C.E.; Funston, G.; Jeevan, D.; Sundar, S.; Mounce, L.T.A.; Crosbie, E.J. The Performance of HE4 Alone and in Combination with CA125 for the Detection of Ovarian Cancer in an Enriched Primary Care Population. Cancers 2022, 14, 2124. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092124

AMA Style

Barr CE, Funston G, Jeevan D, Sundar S, Mounce LTA, Crosbie EJ. The Performance of HE4 Alone and in Combination with CA125 for the Detection of Ovarian Cancer in an Enriched Primary Care Population. Cancers. 2022; 14(9):2124. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092124

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barr, Chloe E., Garth Funston, David Jeevan, Sudha Sundar, Luke T.A. Mounce, and Emma J. Crosbie. 2022. "The Performance of HE4 Alone and in Combination with CA125 for the Detection of Ovarian Cancer in an Enriched Primary Care Population" Cancers 14, no. 9: 2124. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092124

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop