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Restoring FAS Expression via Lipid-Encapsulated FAS DNA Nanoparticle Delivery Is Sufficient to Suppress Colon Tumor Growth In Vivo

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
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Georgia Cancer Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
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Charlie Norwood VA Medical Center, Augusta, GA 30904, USA
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Genprex Inc., Austin, TX 78746, USA
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Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Arndt Vogel and David Wong
Cancers 2022, 14(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14020361
Received: 25 November 2021 / Revised: 21 December 2021 / Accepted: 29 December 2021 / Published: 12 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy)
A key feature of human colorectal tumor is loss of FAS expression. FAS is the death receptor for FASL of activated T cells. Loss of FAS expression therefore may promote tumor cell immune escape. We aimed at determining whether restoring FAS expression is sufficient to suppress colorectal tumor growth. Mouse and human FAS cDNA was synthesized and encapsulated into cationic lipid nanoparticle DOTAP-Cholesterol to formulate DOTAP-Chol-mFAS and DOTAP-Chol-hFAS, respectively. Restoring FAS expression in metastatic mouse colon-tumor cells enabled FASL-induced elimination of FAS+ tumor cells in vitro and suppressed colon-tumor growth and progression in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Restoring FAS expression induced FAS receptor auto-oligomerization and tumor cell auto-apoptosis in metastatic human colon-tumor cells in vitro. DOTAP-Chol-hFAS therapy is also sufficient to suppress metastatic human colon tumor xenograft growth in athymic mice. Tumor-selective delivery of FAS DNA nanoparticle is potentially an effective therapy for human colorectal cancer.
A hallmark of human colorectal cancer is lost expression of FAS, the death receptor for FASL of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, it is unknown whether restoring FAS expression alone is sufficient to suppress csolorectal-cancer development. The FAS promoter is hypermethylated and inversely correlated with FAS mRNA level in human colorectal carcinomas. Analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq datasets revealed that FAS is highly expressed in epithelial cells and immune cells but down-regulated in colon-tumor cells in human colorectal-cancer patients. Codon usage-optimized mouse and human FAS cDNA was designed, synthesized, and encapsulated into cationic lipid to formulate nanoparticle DOTAP-Chol-mFAS and DOTAP-Chol-hFAS, respectively. Overexpression of codon usage-optimized FAS in metastatic mouse colon-tumor cells enabled FASL-induced elimination of FAS+ tumor cells in vitro, suppressed colon tumor growth, and increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Overexpression of codon-optimized FAS-induced FAS receptor auto-oligomerization and tumor cell auto-apoptosis in metastatic human colon-tumor cells. DOTAP-Chol-hFAS therapy is also sufficient to suppress metastatic human colon tumor xenograft growth in athymic mice. DOTAP-Chol-mFAS therapy exhibited no significant liver toxicity. Our data determined that tumor-selective delivery of FAS DNA nanoparticles is sufficient for suppression of human colon tumor growth in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: FAS; colon cancer; metastasis; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; cationic lipid nanoparticle FAS; colon cancer; metastasis; cytotoxic T lymphocyte; cationic lipid nanoparticle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Merting, A.D.; Poschel, D.B.; Lu, C.; Klement, J.D.; Yang, D.; Li, H.; Shi, H.; Chapdelaine, E.; Montgomery, M.; Redman, M.T.; Savage, N.M.; Nayak-Kapoor, A.; Liu, K. Restoring FAS Expression via Lipid-Encapsulated FAS DNA Nanoparticle Delivery Is Sufficient to Suppress Colon Tumor Growth In Vivo. Cancers 2022, 14, 361. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14020361

AMA Style

Merting AD, Poschel DB, Lu C, Klement JD, Yang D, Li H, Shi H, Chapdelaine E, Montgomery M, Redman MT, Savage NM, Nayak-Kapoor A, Liu K. Restoring FAS Expression via Lipid-Encapsulated FAS DNA Nanoparticle Delivery Is Sufficient to Suppress Colon Tumor Growth In Vivo. Cancers. 2022; 14(2):361. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14020361

Chicago/Turabian Style

Merting, Alyssa D., Dakota B. Poschel, Chunwan Lu, John D. Klement, Dafeng Yang, Honglin Li, Huidong Shi, Eric Chapdelaine, Mitzi Montgomery, Michael T. Redman, Natasha M. Savage, Asha Nayak-Kapoor, and Kebin Liu. 2022. "Restoring FAS Expression via Lipid-Encapsulated FAS DNA Nanoparticle Delivery Is Sufficient to Suppress Colon Tumor Growth In Vivo" Cancers 14, no. 2: 361. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14020361

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