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Testing for Lynch Syndrome in Endometrial Carcinoma: From Universal to Age-Selective MLH1 Methylation Analysis
 
 
Systematic Review

The Role of Immunohistochemistry Markers in Endometrial Cancer with Mismatch Repair Deficiency: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Gynecological and Breast Surgery and Oncology, Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), University Hospital, 75013 Paris, France
2
Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, Equipe Instabilité des Microsatellites et Cancer, Equipe Labellisée par la Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, Unité Mixte de Recherche Scientifique 938 and SIRIC CURAMUS, INSERM, Sorbonne Université, 75012 Paris, France
3
Department of Pathology, Tenon Hospital, HUEP, Sorbonne Université, 75020 Paris, France
4
Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine (CRSA), INSERM UMR_S_938, Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Sorbonne University, 75012 Paris, France
5
Department of Pathology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Sorbonne University, 75013 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Valerio Mais and Michele Peiretti
Cancers 2022, 14(15), 3783; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14153783
Received: 5 June 2022 / Revised: 28 July 2022 / Accepted: 29 July 2022 / Published: 3 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunohistochemical Markers in Endometrial Cancer)
Identification of mismatch repair-deficient tumors (MMRd), which occur in up to 30% of all endometrial cancers (EC), has become unavoidable for therapeutic management, clinical decision making, and prognosis. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize our current knowledge of the role of immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers for identifying MMRd tumors in EC. IHC with the expression of four proteins and MLH1 promoter methylation remains the reference of choice for diagnosis because it is reproducible and applicable in routine clinical practice. Further studies are needed to evaluate IHC in comparison with molecular tests including artificial intelligence, in terms of both efficacy and medical/economic aspects.
The objective of this systematic review was to summarize our current knowledge of the role of immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers for identifying mismatch repair-deficient (MMRd) tumors in endometrial cancer (EC). Identification of MMRd tumors, which occur in 13% to 30% of all ECs, has become critical for patients with colorectal and endometrial cancer for therapeutic management, clinical decision making, and prognosis. This review was conducted by two authors applying the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using the following terms: “immunohistochemistry and microsatellite instability endometrial cancer” or “immunohistochemistry and mismatch repair endometrial cancer” or “immunohistochemistry and mismatch repair deficient endometrial cancer”. Among 596 retrieved studies, 161 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Articles were classified and presented according to their interest for the diagnosis, prognosis, and theragnostics for patients with MMRd EC. We identified 10, 18, and 96 articles using IHC expression of two, three, or four proteins of the MMR system (MLH1, MSH2, MHS6, and PMS2), respectively. MLH1 promoter methylation was analyzed in 57 articles. Thirty-four articles classified MMRd tumors with IHC markers according to their prognosis in terms of recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), stage, grade, and lymph node invasion. Theragnostics were studied in eight articles underlying the important concentration of PD-L1 in MMRd EC. Even though the role of IHC has been challenged, it represents the most common, robust, and cheapest method for diagnosing MMRd tumors in EC and is a valuable tool for exploring novel biotherapies and treatment modalities. View Full-Text
Keywords: endometrial cancer; mismatch repair-deficient; immunohistochemistry markers; microsatellite instability; diagnosis; prognosis endometrial cancer; mismatch repair-deficient; immunohistochemistry markers; microsatellite instability; diagnosis; prognosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Favier, A.; Varinot, J.; Uzan, C.; Duval, A.; Brocheriou, I.; Canlorbe, G. The Role of Immunohistochemistry Markers in Endometrial Cancer with Mismatch Repair Deficiency: A Systematic Review. Cancers 2022, 14, 3783. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14153783

AMA Style

Favier A, Varinot J, Uzan C, Duval A, Brocheriou I, Canlorbe G. The Role of Immunohistochemistry Markers in Endometrial Cancer with Mismatch Repair Deficiency: A Systematic Review. Cancers. 2022; 14(15):3783. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14153783

Chicago/Turabian Style

Favier, Amelia, Justine Varinot, Catherine Uzan, Alex Duval, Isabelle Brocheriou, and Geoffroy Canlorbe. 2022. "The Role of Immunohistochemistry Markers in Endometrial Cancer with Mismatch Repair Deficiency: A Systematic Review" Cancers 14, no. 15: 3783. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14153783

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