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Open AccessArticle

Performance Characteristics of the Ultrasound Strategy during Incidence Screening in the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS)

1
Department of Women’s Cancer, Institute for Women’s Health, University College London, London WC1E 6HU, UK
2
MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Institute of Clinical Trials & Methodology, London WC1V 6LJ, UK
3
Department of Pathology, Barts and the London, London E1 2ES, UK
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK
5
Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
6
Division of Gynaecology and of Cancer Services, St. Mary’s Hospital and University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
7
Department of Gynaecological Oncology, University College Hospital, London NW1 2BU, UK
8
Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth PO6 3LY, UK
9
Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast BT9 7AB, UK
10
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ysbyty Gwynedd, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2PW, UK
11
Cancer Research UK Sussex Psychosocial Oncology Group at Brighton & Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Falmer BN1 9PX, UK
12
Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
13
Create Fertility Clinic, London EC2V 6ET, UK
14
Department of Women’s Health, University of New South Wales, Australia, Sydney 2052, Australia
15
London School of Economics and Political Science, London WC2A 2AE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara Gutierrez-Enriquez
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040858
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 4 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 18 February 2021
The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening was undertaken to assess whether screening postmenopausal women from the general population might result in detection of ovarian/tubal cancers at an earlier stage and thus save lives. One of the screening strategies tested was a yearly transvaginal ultrasound scan of the ovaries (USS). Following the initial screen, 44,799 of the 50,639 women in the USS group went on to have a further 280,534 annual scans during April 2002–December 2011. Abnormalities leading to surgery were detected in 960 women of whom 113 (80 invasive epithelial) had ovarian/tubal cancer. Ovarian/tubal cancer was missed in 52 (50 invasive epithelial) women. Of the screen-detected cancers, 37.5% and missed cancers 6% were early stage(I/II). The number (detection rate 61.5%; 80/130) and advanced stage of the missed invasive cancers suggests that a yearly ultrasound scan may not be suitable for screening average risk women for ovarian cancer.
Randomised controlled trials of ovarian cancer (OC) screening have not yet demonstrated an impact on disease mortality. Meanwhile, the screening data from clinical trials represents a rich resource to understand the performance of modalities used. We report here on incidence screening in the ultrasound arm of UKCTOCS. 44,799 of the 50,639 women who were randomised to annual screening with transvaginal ultrasound attended annual incidence screening between 28 April 2002 and 31 December 2011. Transvaginal ultrasound was used both as the first and the second line test. Participants were followed up through electronic health record linkage and postal questionnaires. Out of 280,534 annual incidence screens, 960 women underwent screen-positive surgery. 113 had ovarian/tubal cancer (80 invasive epithelial). Of the screen-detected invasive epithelial cancers, 37.5% (95% CI: 26.9–49.0) were Stage I/II. An additional 52 (50 invasive epithelial) were diagnosed within one year of their last screen. Of the 50 interval epithelial cancers, 6.0% (95% CI: 1.3–16.5) were Stage I/II. For detection of all ovarian/tubal cancers diagnosed within one year of screen, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were 68.5% (95% CI: 60.8–75.5), 99.7% (95% CI: 99.7–99.7), and 11.8% (95% CI: 9.8–14) respectively. When the analysis was restricted to invasive epithelial cancers, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were 61.5% (95% CI: 52.6–69.9); 99.7% (95% CI: 99.7–99.7) and 8.3% (95% CI: 6.7–10.3), with 12 surgeries per screen positive. The low sensitivity coupled with the advanced stage of interval cancers suggests that ultrasound scanning as the first line test might not be suitable for population screening for ovarian cancer. Trial registration: ISRCTN22488978. Registered on 6 April 2000. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovarian cancer; screening; ultrasound; TVS; early detection; trial; randomised controlled trial; UKCTOCS ovarian cancer; screening; ultrasound; TVS; early detection; trial; randomised controlled trial; UKCTOCS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kalsi, J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Ryan, A.; Singh, N.; Burnell, M.; Massingham, S.; Apostolidou, S.; Sharma, A.; Williamson, K.; Seif, M.; Mould, T.; Woolas, R.; Dobbs, S.; Leeson, S.; Fallowfield, L.; Skates, S.J.; Parmar, M.; Campbell, S.; Jacobs, I.; McGuire, A.; Menon, U. Performance Characteristics of the Ultrasound Strategy during Incidence Screening in the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). Cancers 2021, 13, 858. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040858

AMA Style

Kalsi J, Gentry-Maharaj A, Ryan A, Singh N, Burnell M, Massingham S, Apostolidou S, Sharma A, Williamson K, Seif M, Mould T, Woolas R, Dobbs S, Leeson S, Fallowfield L, Skates SJ, Parmar M, Campbell S, Jacobs I, McGuire A, Menon U. Performance Characteristics of the Ultrasound Strategy during Incidence Screening in the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). Cancers. 2021; 13(4):858. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040858

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalsi, Jatinderpal; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Ryan, Andy; Singh, Naveena; Burnell, Matthew; Massingham, Susan; Apostolidou, Sophia; Sharma, Aarti; Williamson, Karin; Seif, Mourad; Mould, Tim; Woolas, Robert; Dobbs, Stephen; Leeson, Simon; Fallowfield, Lesley; Skates, Steven J.; Parmar, Mahesh; Campbell, Stuart; Jacobs, Ian; McGuire, Alistair; Menon, Usha. 2021. "Performance Characteristics of the Ultrasound Strategy during Incidence Screening in the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS)" Cancers 13, no. 4: 858. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040858

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