Immune therapy approaches such as checkpoint inhibitors or adoptive cell therapy represent promising therapeutic options for cancer patients, but their efficacy is still limited, since patients frequently develop innate or acquired resistances to these therapies. Thus, one major goal is to increase the efficiency of immunotherapies by overcoming tumor-induced immune suppression, which then allows for immune-mediated tumor clearance. Innate resistance to immunotherapies could be caused by a low immunogenicity of the tumor itself as well as an immune suppressive microenvironment composed of cellular, physical, or soluble factors leading to escape from immune surveillance and disease progression. So far, a number of strategies causing resistance to immunotherapy have been described in various clinical trials, which broadly overlap with the immunoediting processes of cancers. This review summarizes the novel insights in the development of resistances to immune therapy as well as different approaches that could be employed to overcome them.
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