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The Current View of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan
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Academic Editors: Nathan A. Berger and J. Mark Brown
Cancers 2021, 13(3), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030516
Received: 28 December 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Studies of Obesity-Associated Hepatocellular Cancer)
The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing. However, an effective screening or surveillance method is not established. Recently, the NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) guidelines of Japan were revised to incorporate new strategies and evidence for the management and surveillance of NAFLD/NASH. Advanced fibrosis and lifestyle-related and metabolic comorbidities, especially obesity and diabetes mellitus, are associated with HCC development. At the first screening, serum markers of hepatic fibrosis (hyaluronic acid, type IV collagen 7S, and mac-2 binding protein), or the fibrosis (FIB)-4 index or the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS), or a platelet count should be evaluated. When liver fibrosis is indicated, consultation with a gastroenterology specialist should be considered for the second screening. The risk of HCC should be stratified using the FIB-4 index or the NFS. Liver stiffness should be measured using vibration-controlled transient elastography in those at intermediate or high risk. Blood tests and imaging should be performed every 6–12 months in patients with advanced fibrosis for HCC surveillance. We review here what is known about NAFLD-HCC and provide perspectives for future research.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and can develop into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The incidence of NAFLD-related HCC, which is accompanied by life-threatening complications, is increasing. Advanced fibrosis and lifestyle-related and metabolic comorbidities, especially obesity and diabetes mellitus, are associated with HCC development. However, HCC is also observed in the non-cirrhotic liver. Often, diagnosis is delayed until the tumor is relatively large and the disease is advanced; an effective screening or surveillance method is urgently required. Recently, the NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) guidelines of Japan were revised to incorporate new strategies and evidence for the management and surveillance of NAFLD/NASH. Fibrosis must be tested for noninvasively, and the risk of carcinogenesis must be stratified. The treatment of lifestyle-related diseases is expected to reduce the incidence of NAFLD and prevent liver carcinogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; hepatocellular carcinoma; prevalence; prognosis; surveillance nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; hepatocellular carcinoma; prevalence; prognosis; surveillance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kogiso, T.; Tokushige, K. The Current View of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Cancers 2021, 13, 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030516

AMA Style

Kogiso T, Tokushige K. The Current View of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Cancers. 2021; 13(3):516. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030516

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kogiso, Tomomi, and Katsutoshi Tokushige. 2021. "The Current View of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma" Cancers 13, no. 3: 516. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030516

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