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Gene Expression Signature Associated with Clinical Outcome in ALK-Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Review

Resistance to Targeted Agents Used to Treat Paediatric ALK-Positive ALCL

1
Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
2
Department of Paediatric Oncology and Haematology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
3
CEITEC, Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jean-Max Pasquet and Fabienne Meggetto
Cancers 2021, 13(23), 6003; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236003
Received: 5 October 2021 / Revised: 25 November 2021 / Accepted: 25 November 2021 / Published: 29 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Therapeutic Developments in Hematological Malignancies)
In general, the non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) diagnosed in childhood has a good survival outcome when treated with multi-agent chemotherapy. However, side effects of treatment are common, and outcomes are poorer after relapse, which occurs in up to 30% of cases. New drugs are required that are more effective and have fewer side effects. Targeted therapies are potential solutions to these problems, however, the development of resistance may limit their impact. This review summarises the potential resistance mechanisms to these targeted therapies.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the third most common malignancy diagnosed in children. The vast majority of paediatric NHL are either Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL). Multi-agent chemotherapy is used to treat all of these types of NHL, and survival is over 90% but the chemotherapy regimens are intensive, and outcomes are generally poor if relapse occurs. Therefore, targeted therapies are of interest as potential solutions to these problems. However, the major problem with all targeted agents is the development of resistance. Mechanisms of resistance are not well understood, but increased knowledge will facilitate optimal management strategies through improving our understanding of when to select each targeted agent, and when a combinatorial approach may be helpful. This review summarises currently available knowledge regarding resistance to targeted therapies used in paediatric anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive ALCL. Specifically, we outline where gaps in knowledge exist, and further investigation is required in order to find a solution to the clinical problem of drug resistance in ALCL. View Full-Text
Keywords: nucleophosmin1-anaplastic lymphoma kinase; anaplastic large cell lymphoma; resistance; chemotherapy; paediatric cancer nucleophosmin1-anaplastic lymphoma kinase; anaplastic large cell lymphoma; resistance; chemotherapy; paediatric cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hare, L.; Burke, G.A.A.; Turner, S.D. Resistance to Targeted Agents Used to Treat Paediatric ALK-Positive ALCL. Cancers 2021, 13, 6003. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236003

AMA Style

Hare L, Burke GAA, Turner SD. Resistance to Targeted Agents Used to Treat Paediatric ALK-Positive ALCL. Cancers. 2021; 13(23):6003. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hare, Lucy, G. A.A. Burke, and Suzanne D. Turner. 2021. "Resistance to Targeted Agents Used to Treat Paediatric ALK-Positive ALCL" Cancers 13, no. 23: 6003. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236003

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