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Article

Towards Raman-Based Screening of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Type B (B-ALL) Subtypes

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
2
Jagiellonian Centre for Experimental Therapeutics (JCET), Jagiellonian University, Bobrzynskiego 14, 30-348 Krakow, Poland
3
Department of Pediatrics, Oncology and Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Sporna 36/50, 91-738 Lodz, Poland
4
Lukasiewicz Research Network—Krakow Institute of Technology, Zakopiańska 73, 30-418 Krakow, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fiona Lyng
Cancers 2021, 13(21), 5483; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215483
Received: 23 October 2021 / Revised: 24 October 2021 / Accepted: 26 October 2021 / Published: 31 October 2021
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy originating from abnormal lymphoid progenitor cells. Since ALL is genetically highly heterogenous, more sensitive and rapid methods for identifying the molecular subtype of ALL are still being searched, and Raman spectroscopy (RS) has a chance of becoming a valuable tool for this purpose. Herein, the RS was applied to analyze normal B cells and three subtypes of B-ALL, characterized by the presence of the product of gene fusion, i.e., BCR-ABL1, TEL-AML1, and TCF3-PBX1. The classification and discrimination of normal and neoplastic cells were carried out with the chemometric approach. Normal B cells were characterized mostly by bands assigned to nucleic acids and proteins, whereas three subtypes of ALL appeared to contain a higher lipid content. Spectral differences between particular ALL subtypes were modest. The results lead to the conclusion that RS has the potential as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of malignant neoplasms in the pediatric population. B-cell precursor ALLs (BCP-ALLs) are derived from the progenitors of B lymphocytes. Traditionally, risk factors stratifying therapy in ALL patients included age at diagnosis, initial leukocytosis, and the response to chemotherapy. Currently, treatment intensity is modified according to the presence of specific gene alterations in the leukemic genome. Raman imaging is a promising diagnostic tool, which enables the molecular characterization of cells and differentiation of subtypes of leukemia in clinical samples. This study aimed to characterize and distinguish cells isolated from the bone marrow of patients suffering from three subtypes of BCP-ALL, defined by gene rearrangements, i.e., BCR-ABL1 (Philadelphia-positive, t(9;22)), TEL-AML1 (t(12;21)) and TCF3-PBX1 (t(1;19)), using single-cell Raman imaging combined with multivariate statistical analysis. Spectra collected from clinical samples were compared with single-cell spectra of B-cells collected from healthy donors, constituting the control group. We demonstrated that Raman spectra of normal B cells strongly differ from spectra of their malignant counterparts, especially in the intensity of bands, which can be assigned to nucleic acids. We also showed that the identification of leukemia subtypes could be automated with the use of chemometric methods. Results prove the clinical suitability of Raman imaging for the identification of spectroscopic markers characterizing leukemia cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); fusion genes; chemometric techniques; BCR-ABL1; TCF-PBX1; TEL-AML1 Raman spectroscopy; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); fusion genes; chemometric techniques; BCR-ABL1; TCF-PBX1; TEL-AML1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leszczenko, P.; Borek-Dorosz, A.; Nowakowska, A.M.; Adamczyk, A.; Kashyrskaya, S.; Jakubowska, J.; Ząbczyńska, M.; Pastorczak, A.; Ostrowska, K.; Baranska, M.; Marzec, K.M.; Majzner, K. Towards Raman-Based Screening of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Type B (B-ALL) Subtypes. Cancers 2021, 13, 5483. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215483

AMA Style

Leszczenko P, Borek-Dorosz A, Nowakowska AM, Adamczyk A, Kashyrskaya S, Jakubowska J, Ząbczyńska M, Pastorczak A, Ostrowska K, Baranska M, Marzec KM, Majzner K. Towards Raman-Based Screening of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Type B (B-ALL) Subtypes. Cancers. 2021; 13(21):5483. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215483

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leszczenko, Patrycja, Aleksandra Borek-Dorosz, Anna Maria Nowakowska, Adriana Adamczyk, Sviatlana Kashyrskaya, Justyna Jakubowska, Marta Ząbczyńska, Agata Pastorczak, Kinga Ostrowska, Malgorzata Baranska, Katarzyna Maria Marzec, and Katarzyna Majzner. 2021. "Towards Raman-Based Screening of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Type B (B-ALL) Subtypes" Cancers 13, no. 21: 5483. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215483

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