Metabolism-Associated Epigenetic and Immunoepigenetic Reprogramming in Liver Cancer
Division of Chronic Inflammation and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Academic Editor: Vangelis Kondylis
Received: 14 September 2021
Revised: 13 October 2021
Accepted: 16 October 2021
Published: 19 October 2021
Liver cancer is one of the most frequently occurring cancer types and one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality globally. Despite of its constantly growing incidence, the efficacy of the current therapeutic interventions is limited. Metabolic and epigenetic aberrations are two distinct but mutually influential factors which contribute to the plasticity and adaptability of tumor cells to a hostile microenvironment, leading to high resilience and permissive conditions. This review offers the most up-to-date overview of the recently reported major metabolic dysregulations in liver cancer cells, the consequential epigenetic reprogramming, as well as the opportunity to explore the effect on metabolic competition and inhibition of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Finally, we discuss the potential therapeutic value of pharmaceutical inhibition of these essential pathways in combating liver cancer.