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Review

Thrombotic Complications Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

1
Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital and Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada
2
Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David D. Roberts
Cancers 2021, 13(18), 4606; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184606
Received: 12 August 2021 / Revised: 7 September 2021 / Accepted: 11 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper from Journal Reviewers)
Patients with cancer commonly develop blood clots, which can cause issues including hospitalizations and complications and can affect cancer treatments. Cancer therapies can be one of the reasons for blood clots. A type of cancer therapy called “immune checkpoint inhibitors” has been used more and more often in recent years for different types of cancer. Recent reports revealed an increasing concern of blood clots related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we will summarize data from the available studies and discuss the rates, risk factors, prevention, and treatment strategies for blood clots related to immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Thromboembolism is a common complication in patients with cancer and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anticancer treatment is a known risk factor of cancer-associated thrombosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have become a mainstay of treatment in various cancers. Both venous and arterial thrombosis have been increasingly reported as adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors in recent studies, with a cumulative incidence of venous thrombosis to be 5–8% at 6 months and over 10% at 12 months. Additionally, rates of approximately 1–5% for arterial thrombosis were reported at 12 months. Data also showed an association of thromboembolism with adverse survival. Many pertinent clinical questions in this population deserve further investigation, including the risks of thrombosis associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors as compared to those with traditional systemic therapy, associated risk factors, and the optimal prevention and treatment strategies. In this review, we synthesize data from available literature, provide relevant information for clinicians and potential future directions for research. View Full-Text
Keywords: venous thromboembolism; arterial thrombosis; cancer-associated thrombosis; immune checkpoint inhibitors; anticoagulation venous thromboembolism; arterial thrombosis; cancer-associated thrombosis; immune checkpoint inhibitors; anticoagulation
MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, T.-F.; Khorana, A.A.; Carrier, M. Thrombotic Complications Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Cancers 2021, 13, 4606. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184606

AMA Style

Wang T-F, Khorana AA, Carrier M. Thrombotic Complications Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Cancers. 2021; 13(18):4606. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184606

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Tzu-Fei, Alok A. Khorana, and Marc Carrier. 2021. "Thrombotic Complications Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors" Cancers 13, no. 18: 4606. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184606

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