Urinary PGE-M in Men with Prostate Cancer
Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
Center for Cancer Research, Department of Biology, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20850, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mary F McMullin
Received: 8 July 2021
Revised: 10 August 2021
Accepted: 10 August 2021
Published: 13 August 2021
Elevated levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M), a marker of inflammation, have previously been associated with cancer incidence and metastasis. Studies investigating PGE-M in prostate cancer are lacking even though chronic inflammation is a candidate risk factor for the disease. We investigated the association of PGE-M with lethal prostate cancer. We measured PGE-M in the urine of men with prostate cancer and in men without prostate cancer (population controls). Our participants included African American and European American men. Because African American men die more frequently from prostate cancer than European American men, we investigated whether high PGE-M may contribute to the increased mortality among African American prostate cancer patients. We did not observe a relationship between PGE-M and prostate cancer aggressiveness or prostate cancer-specific mortality in our study population, neither in the combined cohort nor in the race/ethnicity stratified analysis. Interestingly, however, we observed a significant relationship between high PGE-M and all-cause mortality in African American men with prostate cancer. Yet, there was no association between high PGE-M and all-cause mortality when these men were regular aspirin users.