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Molecular and Clinical Features of Hospital Admissions in Patients with Thoracic Malignancies on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

1
Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics Research, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA
2
Integrative Genomics Core, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA
3
Department of Computational & Quantitative Medicine, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA
4
Applied AI and Data Science, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA
5
Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 91010-3000, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steven G. Gray
Cancers 2021, 13(11), 2653; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112653
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 22 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
Lung cancer immunotherapy has many complications and hospitalizations that often occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) while on immunotherapy due to adverse events or other factors. The molecular and clinical profiles of these patients are often not well-defined, and the aim of our retrospective study is to better understand these clinical and molecular features. We evaluated a cohort of 90 stage IV thoracic malignancy patients who had hospital admissions after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We identified a relationship between immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and molecular markers that showed unique survival outcomes, as well as a significant overall survival improvement in patients who required discontinuation or interruption of immunotherapy due to irAEs.
Lung cancer patients undergoing systemic treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can lead to severe immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that may warrant immediate hospitalization. Patients with thoracic malignancies hospitalized at City of Hope while undergoing treatment with ICIs were identified. Pathology and available next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, including the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) status and clinical information, including hospitalizations, invasive procedures, and the occurrence of irAEs, were collected. Unpaired T-tests, Chi-square/Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression were used to analyze our cohort. The overall survival (OS) was calculated and compared using univariate and multivariate COX models. Ninety patients with stage IV lung cancer were admitted after ICI treatment. Of those patients, 28 (31.1%) had documented irAEs. Genomic analyses showed an enrichment of LRP1B mutations (n = 5/6 vs. n = 7/26, 83.3% vs. 26.9%; odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.5 (1.7–166.1); p < 0.05) and MLL3 mutations (n = 4/6, 66.7% vs. n = 5/26, 19.2%; OR (95% CI): 8.4 (1.3–49.3), p < 0.05) in patients with irAE occurrences. Patients with somatic genomic alterations (GAs) in MET (median OS of 2.7 vs. 7.2 months; HR (95% CI): 3.1 (0.57–17.1); p < 0.05) or FANCA (median OS of 3.0 vs. 12.4 months; HR (95% CI): 3.1 (0.70–13.8); p < 0.05) demonstrated a significantly shorter OS. Patients with irAEs showed a trend toward improved OS (median OS 16.4 vs. 6.8 months, p = 0.19) compared to hospitalized patients without documented irAEs. Lung cancer patients who required treatment discontinuance or interruption due to irAEs (n = 19) had significantly longer OS (median OS 18.5 vs. 6.2 months; HR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.28–0.79); p < 0.05). Our results showed a significant survival benefit in lung cancer patients hospitalized due to irAEs that necessitated a treatment interruption. Patients with positive somatic GAs in MET and FANCA were associated with significantly worse OS compared to patients with negative GAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse events (irAEs); admissions; genomic alterations; next-generation sequencing; overall survival lung cancer; checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse events (irAEs); admissions; genomic alterations; next-generation sequencing; overall survival
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, D.; Li, H.; Mambetsariev, I.; Chen, C.; Pharaon, R.; Fricke, J.; Baroz, A.R.; Kulkarni, P.; Xing, Y.; Massarelli, E.; Koczywas, M.; Reckamp, K.L.; Margolin, K.; Salgia, R. Molecular and Clinical Features of Hospital Admissions in Patients with Thoracic Malignancies on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Cancers 2021, 13, 2653. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112653

AMA Style

Zhao D, Li H, Mambetsariev I, Chen C, Pharaon R, Fricke J, Baroz AR, Kulkarni P, Xing Y, Massarelli E, Koczywas M, Reckamp KL, Margolin K, Salgia R. Molecular and Clinical Features of Hospital Admissions in Patients with Thoracic Malignancies on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Cancers. 2021; 13(11):2653. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112653

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Dan, Haiqing Li, Isa Mambetsariev, Chen Chen, Rebecca Pharaon, Jeremy Fricke, Angel R. Baroz, Prakash Kulkarni, Yan Xing, Erminia Massarelli, Marianna Koczywas, Karen L. Reckamp, Kim Margolin, and Ravi Salgia. 2021. "Molecular and Clinical Features of Hospital Admissions in Patients with Thoracic Malignancies on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors" Cancers 13, no. 11: 2653. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112653

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