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COVID-19 Risk Factors for Cancer Patients: A First Report with Comparator Data from COVID-19 Negative Cancer Patients

1
Translational Oncology and Urology Research (TOUR), School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 9RT, UK
2
King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS, UK
3
Medical Oncology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT), London SE1 9RT, UK
4
Clinical Oncology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT), London SE1 9RT, UK
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Haematology Department, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT), London SE1 9RT, UK
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Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT), London SE1 9RT, UK
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Breast Surgery, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT), London SE1 9RT, UK
8
School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King’s College London, London SE1 9RT, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both first authors contributed equally.
Both senior authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Alexandar Tzankov
Cancers 2021, 13(10), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102479
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 14 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a detrimental impact on cancer patients globally. Whilst there are several studies looking at the potential risk factors for COVID-19 disease and related death, most of these include non-cancerous patients as the COVID-19 negative comparator group, meaning it is difficult to draw hard conclusions as to the implications for cancer patients. In our study, we utilized data from over 2000 cancer patients from a large tertiary Cancer Centre in London. In summary, our study found that patients who are male, of Black or Asian ethnicity, or with a hematological malignancy are at an increased risk of COVID-19. The use of cancer patients as the COVID-19 negative comparator group is a major advantage to the study as it means we can better understand the true impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients and identify which factors pose the biggest risk to their likelihood of infection with SARS-CoV2.
Very few studies investigating COVID-19 in cancer patients have included cancer patients as controls. We aimed to identify factors associated with the risk of testing positive for SARS CoV2 infection in a cohort of cancer patients. We analyzed data from all cancer patients swabbed for COVID-19 between 1st March and 31st July 2020 at Guy’s Cancer Centre. We conducted logistic regression analyses to identify which factors were associated with a positive COVID-19 test. Results: Of the 2152 patients tested for COVID-19, 190 (9%) tested positive. Male sex, black ethnicity, and hematological cancer type were positively associated with risk of COVID-19 (OR = 1.85, 95%CI:1.37–2.51; OR = 1.93, 95%CI:1.31–2.84; OR = 2.29, 95%CI:1.45–3.62, respectively) as compared to females, white ethnicity, or solid cancer type, respectively. Male, Asian ethnicity, and hematological cancer type were associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 (OR = 3.12, 95%CI:1.58–6.14; OR = 2.97, 95%CI:1.00–8.93; OR = 2.43, 95%CI:1.00–5.90, respectively). This study is one of the first to compare the risk of COVID-19 incidence and severity in cancer patients when including cancer patients as controls. Results from this study have echoed those of previous reports, that patients who are male, of black or Asian ethnicity, or with a hematological malignancy are at an increased risk of COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; cancer; risk factors COVID-19; cancer; risk factors
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Figure A1

MDPI and ACS Style

Russell, B.; Moss, C.L.; Palmer, K.; Sylva, R.; D’Souza, A.; Wylie, H.; Haire, A.; Cahill, F.; Steel, R.; Hoyes, A.; Wilson, I.; Macneil, A.; Shifa, B.; Monroy-Iglesias, M.J.; Papa, S.; Irshad, S.; Ross, P.; Spicer, J.; Kordasti, S.; Crawley, D.; Zaki, K.; Sita-Lumsden, A.; Josephs, D.; Enting, D.; Swampillai, A.; Sawyer, E.; Fields, P.; Wrench, D.; Rigg, A.; Sullivan, R.; Van Hemelrijck, M.; Dolly, S. COVID-19 Risk Factors for Cancer Patients: A First Report with Comparator Data from COVID-19 Negative Cancer Patients. Cancers 2021, 13, 2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102479

AMA Style

Russell B, Moss CL, Palmer K, Sylva R, D’Souza A, Wylie H, Haire A, Cahill F, Steel R, Hoyes A, Wilson I, Macneil A, Shifa B, Monroy-Iglesias MJ, Papa S, Irshad S, Ross P, Spicer J, Kordasti S, Crawley D, Zaki K, Sita-Lumsden A, Josephs D, Enting D, Swampillai A, Sawyer E, Fields P, Wrench D, Rigg A, Sullivan R, Van Hemelrijck M, Dolly S. COVID-19 Risk Factors for Cancer Patients: A First Report with Comparator Data from COVID-19 Negative Cancer Patients. Cancers. 2021; 13(10):2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Russell, Beth, Charlotte L. Moss, Kieran Palmer, Rushan Sylva, Andrea D’Souza, Harriet Wylie, Anna Haire, Fidelma Cahill, Renee Steel, Angela Hoyes, Isabelle Wilson, Alyson Macneil, Belul Shifa, Maria J Monroy-Iglesias, Sophie Papa, Sheeba Irshad, Paul Ross, James Spicer, Shahram Kordasti, Danielle Crawley, Kamarul Zaki, Ailsa Sita-Lumsden, Debra Josephs, Deborah Enting, Angela Swampillai, Elinor Sawyer, Paul Fields, David Wrench, Anne Rigg, Richard Sullivan, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, and Saoirse Dolly. 2021. "COVID-19 Risk Factors for Cancer Patients: A First Report with Comparator Data from COVID-19 Negative Cancer Patients" Cancers 13, no. 10: 2479. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102479

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