Estrogen receptors (ERs) comprise several nuclear and membrane-bound receptors with different tissue-specific functions. ERα and ERβ are two nuclear members of this family, whereas G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), ER-X, and Gq-coupled membrane estrogen receptor (Gq-mER) are membrane-bound G protein-coupled proteins. ERα participates in the development and function of several body organs such as the reproductive system, brain, heart and musculoskeletal systems. ERβ has a highly tissue-specific expression pattern, particularly in the female reproductive system, and exerts tumor-suppressive roles in some tissues. Recent studies have revealed functional links between both nuclear and membrane-bound ERs and non-coding RNAs. Several oncogenic lncRNAs and miRNAs have been shown to exert their effects through the modulation of the expression of ERs. Moreover, treatment with estradiol has been shown to alter the malignant behavior of cancer cells through functional axes composed of non-coding RNAs and ERs. The interaction between ERs and non-coding RNAs has functional relevance in several human pathologies associated with estrogen regulation, such as cancers, intervertebral disc degeneration, coronary heart disease and diabetes. In the current review, we summarize scientific literature on the role of miRNAs and lncRNAs on ER-associated signaling and related disorders.
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