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Cell-Mediated Release of Nanoparticles as a Preferential Option for Future Treatment of Melanoma
Review

Sex and Gender Disparities in Melanoma

1
Center for Gender-specific Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, 40136 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1819; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071819
Received: 4 June 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 3 July 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Novel Treatment Options in Metastatic Melanoma)
Worldwide, the total incidence of cutaneous melanoma is higher in men than in women, with some differences related to ethnicity and age and, above all, sex and gender. Differences exist in respect to the anatomic localization of melanoma, in that it is more frequent on the trunk in men and on the lower limbs in women. A debated issue is if—and to what extent—melanoma development can be attributed to gender-specific behaviors or to biologically intrinsic differences. In the search for factors responsible for the divergences, a pivotal role of sex hormones has been observed, although conflicting results indicate the involvement of other mechanisms. The presence on the X chromosome of numerous miRNAs and coding genes playing immunological roles represents another important factor, whose relevance can be even increased by the incomplete X chromosome random inactivation. Considering the known advantages of the female immune system, a different cancer immune surveillance efficacy was suggested to explain some sex disparities. Indeed, the complexity of this picture emerged when the recently developed immunotherapies unexpectedly showed better improvements in men than in women. Altogether, these data support the necessity of further studies, which consider enrolling a balanced number of men and women in clinical trials to better understand the differences and obtain actual gender-equitable healthcare. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; sex/gender; sex-hormones; immunity; microRNAs; immunotherapy melanoma; sex/gender; sex-hormones; immunity; microRNAs; immunotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bellenghi, M.; Puglisi, R.; Pontecorvi, G.; De Feo, A.; Carè, A.; Mattia, G. Sex and Gender Disparities in Melanoma. Cancers 2020, 12, 1819. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071819

AMA Style

Bellenghi M, Puglisi R, Pontecorvi G, De Feo A, Carè A, Mattia G. Sex and Gender Disparities in Melanoma. Cancers. 2020; 12(7):1819. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071819

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bellenghi, Maria, Rossella Puglisi, Giada Pontecorvi, Alessandra De Feo, Alessandra Carè, and Gianfranco Mattia. 2020. "Sex and Gender Disparities in Melanoma" Cancers 12, no. 7: 1819. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071819

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