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Fungal Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Its Role in Colorectal, Oral, and Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

1
Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-214 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, Faculty General Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 12108 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland
4
Department of Pathology and Experimental Rheumatology, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland
5
Department of Bioenergetics and Physiology of Exercise, Medical University of Gdansk, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(5), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051326
Received: 6 April 2020 / Revised: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
The association between bacterial as well as viral gut microbiota imbalance and carcinogenesis has been intensively analysed in many studies; nevertheless, the role of fungal gut microbiota (mycobiota) in colorectal, oral, and pancreatic cancer development is relatively new and undiscovered field due to low abundance of intestinal fungi as well as lack of well-characterized reference genomes. Several specific fungi amounts are increased in colorectal cancer patients; moreover, it was observed that the disease stage is strongly related to the fungal microbiota profile; thus, it may be used as a potential diagnostic biomarker for adenomas. Candida albicans, which is the major microbe contributing to oral cancer development, may promote carcinogenesis via several mechanisms, mainly triggering inflammation. Early detection of pancreatic cancer provides the opportunity to improve survival rate, therefore, there is a need to conduct further studies regarding the role of fungal microbiota as a potential prognostic tool to diagnose this cancer at early stage. Additionally, growing attention towards the characterization of mycobiota may contribute to improve the efficiency of therapeutic methods used to alter the composition and activity of gut microbiota. The administration of Saccharomyces boulardii in oncology, mainly in immunocompromised and/or critically ill patients, is still controversial. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycobiota; colorectal cancer; oral cancer; pancreatic cancer; gut microbiota; Saccharomyces boulardii mycobiota; colorectal cancer; oral cancer; pancreatic cancer; gut microbiota; Saccharomyces boulardii
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Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka, K.; Dvořák, A.; Folwarski, M.; Daca, A.; Przewłócka, K.; Makarewicz, W. Fungal Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Its Role in Colorectal, Oral, and Pancreatic Carcinogenesis. Cancers 2020, 12, 1326.

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