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Cancer Extracellular Vesicles: Next-Generation Diagnostic and Drug Delivery Nanotools

1
Pathology Unit, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano (CRO) IRCCS, 33081 Aviano, Italy
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Department of Experimental Oncology, Mediterranean Institute of Oncology, 95029 Catania, Italy
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Biofield Innovation, 35127 Padova, Italy
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Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University, 30170 Venezia-Mestre, Italy
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Immunopathology and Cancer Biomarkers, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano (CRO) IRCCS, 33081 Aviano, Italy
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Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy
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Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113165
Received: 4 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted continuously from different cell types. The composition of EVs, like proteins, nucleic acids and lipids is linked with the cells of origin and they are involved in cell-cell communication. The presence of EVs in the majority of the body fluids makes them attractive to investigate and define their role in physiological and in pathological processes. This review is focused on EVs with dimensions between 30 and 150 nm like exosomes (EEVs). We described the biogenesis of EEVs, methods for isolation and their role in cancer as innovative diagnostic tools and new drug delivery systems.
Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) with dimensions ranging from 100 to 1000 nm are continuously secreted from different cells in their extracellular environment. They are able to encapsulate and transfer various biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, that play an essential role in cell‒cell communication, reflecting a novel method of extracellular cross-talk. Since EVs are present in large amounts in most bodily fluids, challengeable hypotheses are analyzed to unlock their potential roles. Here, we review EVs by discussing their specific characteristics (structure, formation, composition, and isolation methods), focusing on their key role in cell biology. Furthermore, this review will summarize the biomedical applications of EVs, in particular those between 30 and 150 nm (like exosomes), as next-generation diagnostic tools in liquid biopsy for cancer and as novel drug delivery vehicles. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; microvesicles; diagnostics; drug delivery; nanomedicine; cancer extracellular vesicles; microvesicles; diagnostics; drug delivery; nanomedicine; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palazzolo, S.; Memeo, L.; Hadla, M.; Duzagac, F.; Steffan, A.; Perin, T.; Canzonieri, V.; Tuccinardi, T.; Caligiuri, I.; Rizzolio, F. Cancer Extracellular Vesicles: Next-Generation Diagnostic and Drug Delivery Nanotools. Cancers 2020, 12, 3165. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113165

AMA Style

Palazzolo S, Memeo L, Hadla M, Duzagac F, Steffan A, Perin T, Canzonieri V, Tuccinardi T, Caligiuri I, Rizzolio F. Cancer Extracellular Vesicles: Next-Generation Diagnostic and Drug Delivery Nanotools. Cancers. 2020; 12(11):3165. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113165

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palazzolo, Stefano, Lorenzo Memeo, Mohamad Hadla, Fahriye Duzagac, Agostino Steffan, Tiziana Perin, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Isabella Caligiuri, and Flavio Rizzolio. 2020. "Cancer Extracellular Vesicles: Next-Generation Diagnostic and Drug Delivery Nanotools" Cancers 12, no. 11: 3165. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113165

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