Frontiers of Robotic Gastroscopy: A Comprehensive Review of Robotic Gastroscopes and Technologies
Department of Gastroenterology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-252 Szczecin, Poland
The Centre for Digestive Diseases Endoklinika, 70-535 Szczecin, Poland
The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 56025 Pisa, Italy
Department of Excellence in Robotics & AI, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 56127 Pisa, Italy
Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China
Department of Gastroenterology, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland EH4 2XU, UK
Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolomics, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland
Endoscopy Unit, The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA, UK
Medical School, the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 9AG, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These senior authors contributed equally to the work.
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 22 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
With the rapid advancements of medical technologies and patients’ higher expectations for precision diagnostic and surgical outcomes, gastroscopy has been increasingly adopted for the detection and treatment of pathologies in the upper digestive tract. Correspondingly, robotic gastroscopes with advanced functionalities, e.g., disposable, dextrous and not invasive solutions, have been developed in the last years. This article extensively reviews these novel devices and describes their functionalities and performance. In addition, the implementation of artificial intelligence technology into robotic gastroscopes, combined with remote telehealth endoscopy services, are discussed. The aim of this paper is to provide a clear and comprehensive view of contemporary robotic gastroscopes and ancillary technologies to support medical practitioners in their future clinical practice but also to inspire and drive new engineering developments.