Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) Organoids: The Shining Light at the End of the Tunnel for Drug Response Prediction and Personalized Medicine
Institute of Toxicology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(10), 2750; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102750
Received: 14 August 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Organoids in Basic Science and Translational Medicine)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) causes massive medical problems because of late diagnosis and limited responsiveness to standard chemotherapeutic treatments. This makes PDAC one of the major causes of death by cancer. To address this problem, novel tools for early diagnosis and therapy are needed. The recent development of PDAC organoids, which represent micro-scale mini-tumors, offers promising new options for personalized drug-testing based on primary PDAC patient material. This overview article summarizes and discusses the current state-of-the-art in exploiting the organoid technology to improve clinical management of PDAC.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents 90% of pancreatic malignancies. In contrast to many other tumor entities, the prognosis of PDAC has not significantly improved during the past thirty years. Patients are often diagnosed too late, leading to an overall five-year survival rate below 10%. More dramatically, PDAC cases are on the rise and it is expected to become the second leading cause of death by cancer in western countries by 2030. Currently, the use of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel or FOLFIRINOX remains the standard chemotherapy treatment but still with limited efficiency. There is an urgent need for the development of early diagnostic and therapeutic tools. To this point, in the past 5 years, organoid technology has emerged as a revolution in the field of PDAC personalized medicine. Here, we are reviewing and discussing the current technical and scientific knowledge on PDAC organoids, their future perspectives, and how they can represent a game change in the fight against PDAC by improving both diagnosis and treatment options.