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Novel Carbazole-Piperazine Hybrid Small Molecule Induces Apoptosis by Targeting BCL-2 and Inhibits Tumor Progression in Lung Adenocarcinoma In Vitro and Xenograft Mice Model

1
Molecular Cancer Biology Laboratory, Cellular Heterogeneity Research Center, Department of Biosystem, Sookmyung Women’s University, Hyochangwon gil-52, Yongsan-Gu, Seoul 140-742, Korea
2
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
3
Amity Institute of Integrative Sciences and Health (AIISH), Amity University Haryana, Amity Education Valley, Gurgaon 122413, India
4
College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28160, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091245
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 20 August 2019 / Published: 25 August 2019
Lung cancer is a type of deadly cancer and a leading cause of cancer associated death worldwide. BCL-2 protein is considered as an imperative target for the treatment of cancer due to their significant involvement in cell survival and death. A carbazole-piperazine hybrid molecule ECPU-0001 was designed and synthesized as a potent BCL-2 targeting agent with effective anticancer cancer activity. Interaction of ECPU-001 has been assessed by docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and thermal shift assay. Further, in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity was executed by cytotoxicity assay, FACS, colony formation and migration assay, western blotting, immunocyto/histochemistry and xenograft nude mice model. Molecular docking and MD simulation study confirmed that ECPU-0001 nicely interacts with the active site of BCL-2 by displaying a Ki value of 5.72 µM and binding energy (ΔG) of –8.35 kcal/mol. Thermal shift assay also validated strong interaction of this compound with BCL-2. ECPU-0001 effectively exerted a cytotoxic effect against lung adenocarnoma cells A459 with an IC50 value of 1.779 µM. Molecular mechanism of action have also been investigated and found that ECPU-0001 induced apoptosis in A459 cell by targeting BCL-2 to induce intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Administration of ECPU-0001 significantly inhibited progression of tumor in a xenograft model without exerting severe toxicity and remarkably reduced tumor volume as well as tumor burden in treated animals. Our investigation bestowed ECPU-0001 as an effective tumoricidal agent which exhibited impressive anticancer activity in vitro as well as in vivo by targeting BCL-2 associated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Thus, ECPU-0001 may provide a valuable input for therapy of lung adenosarcoma in future, however, further extensive investigation of this compound will be needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbazole-piperazine hybrid molecule; ECPU-0001; tumor xenograft; mitochondrial mediated apoptosis; intrinsic pathway; molecular dynamics simulation carbazole-piperazine hybrid molecule; ECPU-0001; tumor xenograft; mitochondrial mediated apoptosis; intrinsic pathway; molecular dynamics simulation
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Mongre, R.K.; Mishra, C.B.; Prakash, A.; Jung, S.; Lee, B.S.; Kumari, S.; Hong, J.T.; Lee, M.-S. Novel Carbazole-Piperazine Hybrid Small Molecule Induces Apoptosis by Targeting BCL-2 and Inhibits Tumor Progression in Lung Adenocarcinoma In Vitro and Xenograft Mice Model. Cancers 2019, 11, 1245.

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