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Open AccessArticle

Mining Prognosis Index of Brain Metastases Using Artificial Intelligence

1,†, 2,3,4,†, 2,4,* and 1,*
Cancer Center, Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa 999078, China
Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Macau, Taipa 999078, China
Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Chongqing Industry&Trade Polytechnic, Chongqing 408000, China
Center of Medical Instruments, Zhuhai Institute of Advanced Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhuhai 519000, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shigao Huang and Jie Yang contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1140;
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
PDF [2205 KB, uploaded 9 August 2019]


This study is to identify the optimum prognosis index for brain metastases by machine learning. Seven hundred cancer patients with brain metastases were enrolled and divided into 446 training and 254 testing cohorts. Seven features and seven prediction methods were selected to evaluate the performance of cancer prognosis for each patient. We used mutual information and rough set with particle swarm optimization (MIRSPSO) methods to predict patient’s prognosis with the highest accuracy at area under the curve (AUC) = 0.978 ± 0.06. The improvement by MIRSPSO in terms of AUC was at 1.72%, 1.29%, and 1.83% higher than that of the traditional statistical method, sequential feature selection (SFS), mutual information with particle swarm optimization(MIPSO), and mutual information with sequential feature selection (MISFS), respectively. Furthermore, the clinical performance of the best prognosis was superior to conventional statistic method in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. In conclusion, identifying optimal machine-learning methods for the prediction of overall survival in brain metastases is essential for clinical applications. The accuracy rate by machine-learning is far higher than that of conventional statistic methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain metastases; radiosurgery; prognosis index; artificial intelligence brain metastases; radiosurgery; prognosis index; artificial intelligence

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Huang, S.; Yang, J.; Fong, S.; Zhao, Q. Mining Prognosis Index of Brain Metastases Using Artificial Intelligence. Cancers 2019, 11, 1140.

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