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Review

Treatment Options for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

1
Institute of Endocrinology, Beilinson Hospital, Petach Tikva 49100, Israel
2
Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
3
Department of Endocrine Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON M5G 1Z5, Canada
4
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3T 1E2, Canada
5
Department of Pathology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(6), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11060828
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms)
The management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) involves classification into non-functional or functional PanNET, and as localized or metastatic PanNET. In addition, while most PanNETs are sporadic, these endocrine neoplasms can also be manifestations of genetic syndromes. All these factors may assist in forming a risk stratification system permitting a tailored management approach. Most PanNETs are classified as non-functional because they are not associated with clinical sequelae of hormone excess. They are characterized by non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or weight loss, resulting from mass effect related to the pancreatic tumor or secondary to distant metastases. Accurate staging of the disease is essential for determining the appropriate approach to therapy. As cure is only potentially possible with surgical resection of the tumor, it is recommended to remove all localized and limited metastatic disease. However, many patients present with metastatic and/or advanced local disease. In such instances, the goal of therapy is to control tumor growth and/or decrease tumor burden, lengthen survival, and palliate local symptoms and those of hormone excess. This typically requires a multimodal approach, including surgery, liver-directed treatment, and systemic medical therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors; pancreas; pancreatic cancer neuroendocrine tumors; pancreas; pancreatic cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akirov, A.; Larouche, V.; Alshehri, S.; Asa, S.L.; Ezzat, S. Treatment Options for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Cancers 2019, 11, 828. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11060828

AMA Style

Akirov A, Larouche V, Alshehri S, Asa SL, Ezzat S. Treatment Options for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Cancers. 2019; 11(6):828. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11060828

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akirov, Amit, Vincent Larouche, Sameerah Alshehri, Sylvia L. Asa, and Shereen Ezzat. 2019. "Treatment Options for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors" Cancers 11, no. 6: 828. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11060828

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