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Macro Histone Variants: Emerging Rheostats of Gastrointestinal Cancers

1
International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital, 656 91 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Division of Medicine, University College London (UCL), London NW32PF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050676
Received: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Dysregulation in Cancer: From Mechanism to Therapy)
PDF [594 KB, uploaded 15 May 2019]

Abstract

Gastrointestinal cancers (GC) are malignancies involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accessory organs of the digestive system, including the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder. GC is one of the most common cancers and contributes to more cancer-related deaths than cancers of any other system in the human body. Causative factors of GC have been consistently attributed to infections, smoking, an unhealthy diet, obesity, diabetes, and genetic factors. More recently, aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression has emerged as a new, fundamental pathway in GC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the role of the macroH2A histone family in GI cell function and malignant transformation, and highlight how this histone family may open up novel biomarkers for cancer detection, prediction, and response to treatment.
Keywords: gastrointestinal cancer; histone variants; epigenetics; macroH2A gastrointestinal cancer; histone variants; epigenetics; macroH2A
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Giallongo, S.; Lo Re, O.; Vinciguerra, M. Macro Histone Variants: Emerging Rheostats of Gastrointestinal Cancers. Cancers 2019, 11, 676.

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