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Kinase Regulation of HOX Transcription Factors

Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(4), 508;
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HOX Genes in Cancer)
The HOX genes are a group of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that play important regulatory roles in early development, including the establishment of cell and tissue identity. HOX expression is generally reduced in adult cells but is frequently re-established as an early event in tumour formation and supports an oncogenic phenotype. HOX transcription factors are also involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, along with normal adult physiological process including stem cell renewal. There have been extensive studies on the mechanism by which HOX proteins regulate transcription, with particular emphasis on their interaction with cofactors such as Pre-B-cell Leukaemia Homeobox (PBX) and Myeloid Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 1 (MEIS). However, significantly less is known of how the activity of HOX proteins is regulated. There is growing evidence that phosphorylation may play an important role in this context, and in this review, we draw together a number of important studies published over the last 20 years, and discuss the relevance of phosphorylation in the regulation and function of HOX proteins in development, evolution, cell cycle regulation, and cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: HOX; phosphorylation; embryonic patterning; cell cycle; cancer HOX; phosphorylation; embryonic patterning; cell cycle; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Primon, M.; Hunter, K.D.; Pandha, H.S.; Morgan, R. Kinase Regulation of HOX Transcription Factors. Cancers 2019, 11, 508.

AMA Style

Primon M, Hunter KD, Pandha HS, Morgan R. Kinase Regulation of HOX Transcription Factors. Cancers. 2019; 11(4):508.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Primon, Monika; Hunter, Keith D.; Pandha, Hardev S.; Morgan, Richard. 2019. "Kinase Regulation of HOX Transcription Factors" Cancers 11, no. 4: 508.

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