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Open AccessReview

Mechanisms of Anticancer Drug Resistance in Hepatoblastoma

1
Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting (HEVEFARM), University of Salamanca, IBSAL, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
2
Center for the Study of Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases (CIBERehd), Carlos III National Institute of Health, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(3), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030407
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatoblastoma and Pediatric Liver Tumors)
The most frequent liver tumor in children is hepatoblastoma (HB), which derives from embryonic parenchymal liver cells or hepatoblasts. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which rarely affects young people, causes one fourth of deaths due to cancer in adults. In contrast, HB usually has better prognosis, but this is still poor in 20% of cases. Although more responsive to chemotherapy than HCC, the failure of pharmacological treatment used before and/or after surgical resection is an important limitation in the management of patients with HB. To advance in the implementation of personalized medicine it is important to select the best combination among available anti-HB drugs, such as platinum derivatives, anthracyclines, etoposide, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, Vinca alkaloids, 5-fluorouracil, monoclonal antibodies, irinotecan and nitrogen mustards. This requires predicting the sensitivity to these drugs of each tumor at each time because, it should be kept in mind, that cancer chemoresistance is a dynamic process of Darwinian nature. For this goal it is necessary to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of chemoresistance involved in the refractoriness of HB against the pharmacological challenge and how they evolve during treatment. In this review we have summarized the current knowledge on the multifactorial and complex factors responsible for the lack of response of HB to chemotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemoresistance; chemotherapy; liver cancer; pediatric cancer chemoresistance; chemotherapy; liver cancer; pediatric cancer
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Marin, J.J.G.; Cives-Losada, C.; Asensio, M.; Lozano, E.; Briz, O.; Macias, R.I.R. Mechanisms of Anticancer Drug Resistance in Hepatoblastoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 407.

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