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Open AccessReview

A Review of Key Biological and Molecular Events Underpinning Transformation of Melanocytes to Primary and Metastatic Melanoma

by Louise A. Jackett 1,2,3,4 and Richard A. Scolyer 1,2,3,*
1
Melanoma Institute Australia, 2065 Sydney, Australia
2
Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, 2050 Sydney, Australia
3
Department of Tissue Pathology and Diagnostic Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 2050 Sydney, Australia
4
Department of Anatomical Pathology, Austin Hospital, 3084 Melbourne, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11122041
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 17 December 2019
Melanoma is a major public health concern that is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in countries such as New Zealand and Australia where it is the commonest cause of cancer death in young adults. Until recently, there were no effective drug therapies for patients with advanced melanoma however significant advances in our understanding of the biological and molecular basis of melanoma in recent decades have led to the development of revolutionary treatments, including targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapy. This review summarizes our current understanding of the key events in the pathway of melanomagenesis and discusses the role of genomic analysis as a potential tool for improved diagnostic evaluation, prognostication and treatment strategies. Ultimately, it is hoped that a continued deeper understanding of the mechanisms of melanomagenesis will lead to the development of even more effective treatments that continue to provide better outcomes for patients with melanoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: diagnosis; melanoma; metastasis; pathology; progression; treatment; melanomagenesis diagnosis; melanoma; metastasis; pathology; progression; treatment; melanomagenesis
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Jackett, L.A.; Scolyer, R.A. A Review of Key Biological and Molecular Events Underpinning Transformation of Melanocytes to Primary and Metastatic Melanoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 2041.

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