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Estrogen Receptors in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Prostate Cancer

1
Dipartimento di Medicina di Precisione, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze della Salute “V. Tiberio”, Università degli Studi del Molise, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
3
Istituto di Scienze dell’Alimentazione—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 83100 Avellino, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche, Neurologiche, Metaboliche e dell’Invecchiamento, Università degli Studi della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the paper.
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101418
Received: 12 August 2019 / Revised: 16 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estrogen Receptor (ER) Signalling Pathway in Cancers)
Prostate cancer (PC) remains a widespread malignancy in men. Since the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) axis is associated with the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, suppression of AR-dependent signaling by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) still represents the primary intervention for this disease. Despite the initial response, prostate cancer frequently develops resistance to ADT and progresses. As such, the disease becomes metastatic and few therapeutic options are available at this stage. Although the majority of studies are focused on the role of AR signaling, compelling evidence has shown that estrogens and their receptors control prostate cancer initiation and progression through a still debated mechanism. Epithelial versus mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in metastatic spread as well as drug-resistance of human cancers, and many studies on the role of this process in prostate cancer progression have been reported. We discuss here the findings on the role of estrogen/estrogen receptor (ER) axis in epithelial versus mesenchymal transition of prostate cancer cells. The pending questions concerning this issue are presented, together with the impact of the available data in clinical management of prostate cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogens; estrogen receptors (ERs); prostate cancer (PC); epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); metastasis estrogens; estrogen receptors (ERs); prostate cancer (PC); epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); metastasis
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Di Zazzo, E.; Galasso, G.; Giovannelli, P.; Di Donato, M.; Bilancio, A.; Perillo, B.; Sinisi, A.A.; Migliaccio, A.; Castoria, G. Estrogen Receptors in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2019, 11, 1418.

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