Next Article in Journal
miRNA-130a Significantly Improves Accuracy of SGA Nutritional Assessment Tool in Prediction of Malnutrition and Cachexia in Radiotherapy-Treated Head and Neck Cancer Patients
Next Article in Special Issue
Metabolic Syndrome and the Risk of Breast Cancer and Subtypes by Race, Menopause and BMI
Previous Article in Journal
Three-Dimensional In Vitro Hydro- and Cryogel-Based Cell-Culture Models for the Study of Breast-Cancer Metastasis to Bone
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Are Associated with Well-Differentiated Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

1
Department of Endocrinology of Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO-Porto) & Clinical Research Unit—Research Center of IPO-Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
2
Department of Public Health and Forensic Sciences and Medical Education, Unit of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public Health, University of Porto Medical School, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
3
EPIUnit—Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
4
Department of Epidemiology of Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO-Porto), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
5
Endocrine, Cardiovascular & Metabolic Research, Unit for Multidisciplinary Research in Biomedicine (UMIB), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
6
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
7
Department of Pathology of Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO-Porto) & Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group—Research Center of IPO-Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
8
Department of Pathology and Molecular Immunology of Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
9
Department of Endocrinology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, 4099-001 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2018, 10(9), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10090293
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity as a Risk Factor for Cancer)
  |  
PDF [407 KB, uploaded 27 August 2018]
  |  

Abstract

The determinants for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) recent burden are matters of debate. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are well established risks for several cancers even though no link with GEP-NETs was yet established. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether well-differentiated GEP-NETs were associated with obesity and MetS. Patients with well-differentiated GEP-NETs (n = 96) were cross-matched for age, gender, and district of residence with a control group (n = 96) derived from the general population in a case-control study. Patients presented gastro-intestinal (75.0%) or pancreatic (22.9%) tumors, grade G1 (66.7%) or G2 (27.1%) with localized disease (31.3%), regional metastasis (16.7%) or distant metastasis (43.8%) at diagnosis, and 45.8% had clinical hormonal syndromes. MetS was defined according to Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Well-differentiated GEP-NETs were associated with MetS criteria as well as the individual components’ waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p = 0.011 and p < 0.001, respectively). The likelihood of the association was higher when the number of individual MetS components was greater than four. MetS and some individual MetS components including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, and increased fasting glucose are associated with well-differentiated GEP-NET. This data provides a novel insight in unraveling the mechanisms leading to GEP-NET disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; abdominal obesity; metabolic syndrome; glucose abnormalities gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; abdominal obesity; metabolic syndrome; glucose abnormalities
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Santos, A.P.; Santos, A.C.; Castro, C.; Raposo, L.; Pereira, S.S.; Torres, I.; Henrique, R.; Cardoso, H.; Monteiro, M.P. Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Are Associated with Well-Differentiated Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Cancers 2018, 10, 293.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top