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Cancers 2018, 10(10), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10100370

Microenvironmental pH and Exosome Levels Interplay in Human Cancer Cell Lines of Different Histotypes

1
Department of Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Neuroimmunology Unit, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, 00179 Rome, Italy
3
National AIDS Center, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
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Abstract

Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles primarily involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. This study was set out from recent evidence that extracellular acidity may increase the exosome release by cancer cells. However, this preliminary evidence did not provide solid information on whether the pH-dependent exosome over-release represents a common feature of all cancers. To the purpose of demonstrating that cancer acidity is a major determinant in inducing an increased exosome release by human cancer cells, we evaluated human tumor cell lines deriving from either colon, breast, prostate cancers, melanoma, or osteosarcoma. All cell lines were cultured in either the current 7.4 pH or the typical pH of cancer that is 6.5. The levels of released extracellular vesicles were measured by protein counts, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and nanoscale flow cytometry. The results showed that pH 6.5 induced a remarkable increase in exosome release, and buffering the medium significantly reduced the exosome release in all cancers. With these results, we provide, for the first time, evidence that tumor acidity and exosome levels represent common cancer phenotypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: acidity; exosomes; microenvironment; nanoparticle tracking analysis; biomarkers acidity; exosomes; microenvironment; nanoparticle tracking analysis; biomarkers
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Logozzi, M.; Mizzoni, D.; Angelini, D.F.; Di Raimo, R.; Falchi, M.; Battistini, L.; Fais, S. Microenvironmental pH and Exosome Levels Interplay in Human Cancer Cell Lines of Different Histotypes. Cancers 2018, 10, 370.

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