The Current Status and Future Prospects of Oncolytic Viruses in Clinical Trials against Melanoma, Glioma, Pancreatic, and Breast Cancers
Cancer Immune Therapy Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
Department of Surgery II, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
Department of Transplantation and Endocrine Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
Department of Otolaryngology Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
Takara Bio Inc., Kusatsu, Shiga 525-0028, Japan
Office of International Affairs, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2018, 10(10), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10100356
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Virotherapy)
Oncolytic viral therapy has been accepted as a standard immunotherapy since talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC, Imlygic®) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) for melanoma treatment in 2015. Various oncolytic viruses (OVs), such as HF10 (Canerpaturev—C-REV) and CVA21 (CAVATAK), are now actively being developed in phase II as monotherapies, or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors against melanoma. Moreover, in glioma, several OVs have clearly demonstrated both safety and a promising efficacy in the phase I clinical trials. Additionally, the safety of several OVs, such as pelareorep (Reolysin®), proved their safety and efficacy in combination with paclitaxel in breast cancer patients, but the outcomes of OVs as monotherapy against breast cancer have not provided a clear therapeutic strategy for OVs. The clinical trials of OVs against pancreatic cancer have not yet demonstrated efficacy as either monotherapy or as part of combination therapy. However, there are several oncolytic viruses that have successfully proved their efficacy in different preclinical models. In this review, we mainly focused on the oncolytic viruses that transitioned into clinical trials against melanoma, glioma, pancreatic, and breast cancers. Hence, we described the current status and future prospects of OVs clinical trials against melanoma, glioma, pancreatic, and breast cancers.