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Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 452;

Introduction to Photonics: Principles and the Most Recent Applications of Microstructures

Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Department of Computer System & Technology, Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Pasir Gudang Campus, 81750 Johor, Malaysia
Laser Centre, IBNU SINA ISIR, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Faculty of Industrial Education, Rajamangala University of Technology Phranakorn, Bangkok 10300, Thailand
Computational Optics Research Group, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Ton Duc Thang University, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials Based Microdevices)
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Light has found applications in data transmission, such as optical fibers and waveguides and in optoelectronics. It consists of a series of electromagnetic waves, with particle behavior. Photonics involves the proper use of light as a tool for the benefit of humans. It is derived from the root word “photon”, which connotes the tiniest entity of light analogous to an electron in electricity. Photonics have a broad range of scientific and technological applications that are practically limitless and include medical diagnostics, organic synthesis, communications, as well as fusion energy. This will enhance the quality of life in many areas such as communications and information technology, advanced manufacturing, defense, health, medicine, and energy. The signal transmission methods used in wireless photonic systems are digital baseband and RoF (Radio-over-Fiber) optical communication. Microwave photonics is considered to be one of the emerging research fields. The mid infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy offers a principal means for biological structure analysis as well as nonintrusive measurements. There is a lower loss in the propagations involving waveguides. Waveguides have simple structures and are cost-efficient in comparison with optical fibers. These are important components due to their compactness, low profile, and many advantages over conventional metallic waveguides. Among the waveguides, optofluidic waveguides have been found to provide a very powerful foundation for building optofluidic sensors. These can be used to fabricate the biosensors based on fluorescence. In an optical fiber, the evanescent field excitation is employed to sense the environmental refractive index changes. Optical fibers as waveguides can be used as sensors to measure strain, temperature, pressure, displacements, vibrations, and other quantities by modifying a fiber. For some application areas, however, fiber-optic sensors are increasingly recognized as a technology with very interesting possibilities. In this review, we present the most common and recent applications of the optical fiber-based sensors. These kinds of sensors can be fabricated by a modification of the waveguide structures to enhance the evanescent field; therefore, direct interactions of the measurand with electromagnetic waves can be performed. In this research, the most recent applications of photonics components are studied and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: light; photon; communications; waveguides; fibers; biosensors light; photon; communications; waveguides; fibers; biosensors

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Amiri, I.S.; Azzuhri, S.R.B.; Jalil, M.A.; Hairi, H.M.; Ali, J.; Bunruangses, M.; Yupapin, P. Introduction to Photonics: Principles and the Most Recent Applications of Microstructures. Micromachines 2018, 9, 452.

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